8 × 103/µL and 212 × 103/µL, respectively Lisinopril was added t

8 × 103/µL and 212 × 103/µL, respectively. Lisinopril was added to his regimen. Renal ultrasound showed kidneys of normal size and contour with increased renal echogenicity but no stones or masses. Renal biopsy revealed chronic membranous glomerulopathy with focal segmental sclerosis and basement

membrane thickening by light microscopy and electron microscopy (Figure 1). Immunofluorescent staining identified diffuse, capillary, and granular kappa and lambda IgG deposition as well as capillary and mesangial this website granular IgM deposition. Evaluation for secondary causes such as the viral hepatitides, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, tuberculosis, malignancy, auto-immune disease, thyroiditis, toxic exposures and medications was not fruitful. The initial malaria Giemsa smears examined by clinical laboratory personnel were negative as was the BinaxNOW® Malaria (Inveress Medical Professional Diagnostics, Princeton, NJ, USA) rapid antigen capture assay. Given the patient’s

history of malaria as a child, his blood was subjected to species-specific small subunit ribosomal RNA DNA nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as previously described.4 The results were BAY 80-6946 clinical trial positive for P malariae but negative for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Repeat microscopic examination of the patient’s Giemsa-stained blood smears by an expert microscopist was notable for rare ring form trophozoites consistent with Plasmodium sp. (<0.001%). tetracosactide The patient was treated with atovaquone/proguanil for 3 days because of a self-reported allergy to chloroquine. His kidney function did improve transiently within a few weeks of treatment but never returned to baseline and further deteriorated to the degree that he is currently hemodialysis-dependent. Malaria is commonly an acute illness for which timely, appropriately dosed blood schizontocides are generally curative for P falciparum and P malariae as well as the primary blood stage infections of P vivax and Plasmodium ovale. However, because the latter two species can intermittently relapse over several years because of the presence

of hypnozoites against which blood schizontocides are ineffective, radical cure requires the hypnozoitocidal drug primaquine. Although P malariae does not develop a hypnozoite stage and is still considered fully sensitive to all blood schizontocides, including chloroquine, chronic sub-clinical parasitemia can persist for decades with clinical illness occurring up to 40 years after last exposure to the risk of infection.1 Our patient had been treated for malaria as a child in Nigeria but had not traveled to a malaria endemic location in 14 years. Chronic sub-clinical P malariae infection may occur even after appropriate treatment because of its extended prepatent period and the presence of broods that may continue to be released from the liver for weeks after treatment when blood concentrations of drugs are no longer adequate to eliminate newly emerging merozoites.

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