At low concentrations (around 6.25 μg/ml
ZnO NPs), exposure to nano-ZnO resulted in a slight increase in intracellular ROS. The exposure at high concentrations (above 12.5 μg/ml ZnO NPs) results in BI-D1870 significant increases in ROS. As for the exposure to 62-nm ZnO NPs for 24 h, the fold of ROS levels (relative to control) at concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml was 1.35, 1.6, 1.8, 2.1, and 2.8, respectively. Intracellular ROS induced by 26-nm PF-02341066 in vivo ZnO NPs at 100 μg/ml for 24 h reached 4.5-fold compared to the relative control cells. GSH is an antioxidant, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides. As shown in Figure 3B, ZnO NPs significantly decreased the GSH level in Caco-2 cells compared with control values.
Intracellular GSH was greatly reduced (117 ± 4 μmol/g prot) with 12.5 μg/ml of 26-nm ZnO NPs on Caco-2 cells, indicating functional damage from ROS; 26-nm and 62-nm ZnO NPs significantly decreased (106.1 ± 9 and 119.7 ± 0.4) intracellular GSH at 25 μg/ml, whereas at 100 μg/ml, a significant decrease occurred at both types tested. The colorimetric LDH release assay is a simple and robust method to assess cytotoxic effects on cells by measuring the activity of LDH in the cell culture supernatant. Figure 3C showed that ZnO induced a significant LDH release and thus loss of membrane click here integrity at both treatment concentrations. After a 24-h incubation, 25 μg/ml ZnO significantly increased LDH release in comparison to the controls. With 90-nm ZnO NPs, LDH release could be largely measured at 50 μg/ml. At less than 12.5 μg/ml, the 90-nm ZnO NPs did not show any membrane-damaging effects. Figure 3 The oxidative stress of ZnO NPs on Caco-2 cells. Cell viability of Caco-2 cells treated
with different concentrations of different-sized ZnO NPs for 24 h. The data are presented as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments (n = 5). (A) ROS change. (B) GSH detection. (C) LDH release. Red, 26-nm ZnO NPs; green, 62-nm ZnO NPs; violet, 90-nm ZnO NPs. The acridine Immune system orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double staining principle combines the differential uptake of fluorescent DNA binding dyes acridine orange and ethidium bromide, and the morphological aspect of chromatin condensation in the stained nucleus . The toxicity of ZnO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the number of viable cells (VN) and a rise in early apoptotic cells (VA), late apoptotic cells (NVA), and necrotic cells (NVN) (Figure 4). The AO/EB assay is applicable for ZnO nanoparticles according to their cell membrane destabilization potential. Cultures exposed to 12.5 μg/ml ZnO NPs showed a decrease (70.5%, 84%, and 83% for 26-, 62-, and 90-nm ZnO NPs) in the number of viable cells when compared with the control (98.5%), with a concomitant increase in the number of early apoptotic cells (15%, 10%, and 10% for 26-, 62-, and 90-nm ZnO NPs).