Furthermore, D1/D5 receptors are pivotal in conferring
the properties of novelty and reward to information being processed by the hippocampus. They also facilitate the expression of persistent forms of synaptic plasticity, and given reports that both long-term potentiation and long-term depression encode different aspects of spatial representations, this suggests that D1/D5 receptors can drive the nature and qualitative content of stored information in the hippocampus. In light of these observations, we propose that D1/D5 receptors gate hippocampal long-term plasticity and memory and are pivotal in conferring the properties of novelty and reward to information being processed by the hippocampus.”
“Crosstalk among mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways integrates extracellular BTSA1 mw cues to regulate SYN-117 mammary epithelial cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The runt-related transcription factor, Runx2, is expressed in normal mammary epithelium and promotes differentiation, however, its function in regulation of the MAPK
and PI3K signaling crosstalk is not known. We determined the function of Runx2 expression in growth factor-mediated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, key downstream kinases in MAPK and PI3K pathway crosstalk in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells. The Runx2-mediated alterations in cell signaling and associated changes in phenotype were determined by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry approaches. The results revealed that selleck screening library ectopic Runx2 expression differentially downregulates the
growth factor (EGF vs. IGF or insulin)-induced pErk1/2 and pAkt levels. Additionally, the ectopic Runx2 expression increases FOXO1 levels, cell cycle G1 stage and promotes survival of MCF-10A cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Runx2 expression increases EGF-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) and relieves Mek/Erk-mediated negative regulation of pEGFR and pAkt levels. Altogether, our results identify functions of Runx2 in MAPK and PI3K signaling crosstalk in MCF-10A cells that could be critical in understanding the mammary epithelial cell growth and survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 2208-2217, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different amounts of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in the gestation diet on the physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance during two successive reproductive cycles. Multiparous Landrace sows (n=140) were assigned randomly to one of four experimental diets, and four gestation diets were formulated to contain varying amounts of KF at 0%, 0.6%, 1.2% or 2.