The experimental results indicate that k(L) is in the range of 5

The experimental results indicate that k(L) is in the range of 5.83 to 13.4 x 10(-5) m s(-1) and an empirical cot-relation was proposed to predict kL in FFMR. (C) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 55: 1110-1120, 2009″
“With the rapid increase in circuit complexity, accurate

reliability simulator is necessary as reliability testing for fabricated circuit selleck chemicals is progressively more time and resource consuming. Simple 2D electromigration (EM) simulator has many limitations and most of the 3D EM simulations in the literature are using simple line-via structure which is only part of the real circuit structure. In this paper, a thorough comparison between simple 3D line-via structure model and 3D circuit model under different test conditions is performed using class-AB amplifier as an example, and the results showed that simple line-via structure simulation may not always correctly represent the real circuit failure site. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“With rapid advances in modern dentistry, high-energy output instruments (e. g., dental lasers and light polymerizing units) are increasingly employed in dental

surgery for applications such as laser assisted tooth ablation, bleaching, hypersensitivity treatment and polymerization of dental restorative materials. Extreme high temperature occurs within the tooth GDC-973 during these treatments, which may induce tooth thermal pain (TTP) sensation. Despite the wide application of these dental treatments, the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand heat transfer (HT) process in tooth,

thermally induced damage of tooth, and the corresponding TTP. This will enhance the design and optimization of clinical treatment strategies. This paper presents the state-of-the-art of the current understanding on HT in tooth, with both experimental study and mathematical modeling reviewed. Limitations of the current experimental and mathematical methodologies are discussed and potential solutions are suggested. Interpretation of TTP in terms of thermally stimulated dentinal fluid flow is also discussed. (C) 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the effect of cessation Selleck WH-4-023 of management on carbohydrate reserves of plants in meadows with different environmental characteristics and plant composition. We recorded storage carbohydrates and seasonal changes for 40 plant species. We asked whether there are differences in responses of carbohydrate reserves in forbs versus graminoids and in plants storing starch versus plants storing osmotically active carbohydrates. We analysed belowground organs before the meadows were mown and at the end of the vegetation season in mown versus recently abandoned plots.

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