Together, these results provide insights into the structure and evolution of an important extended gene family, and present a number this website of testable hypotheses which will aid in elucidating the function of ESAG5. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The syncytiotrophoblast is formed at the placental periphery through cytotrophoblast fusion,
which depends on Human Endogenous Retrovirus-encoded Envelope proteins Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-2. In the current study, the role of Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain Containing 2A (MFSD2a), the Syncytin-2 receptor, in trophoblast fusion and its expression in normal vs. pre-eclampsia placentas were studied. Forskolin-induced fusion of BeWo cells GDC-0068 mouse first parallelled an increase in MFSD2a expression. The MFSD2a signal localized in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. Knockdown of MFSD2a expression confirmed its importance in BeWo fusion. Furthermore, reduced MFSD2a expression was noted in severe pre-eclamptic placentas. These data thus support the importance of MFSD2a in trophoblast fusion and placenta development.
(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“T-helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris (PV). Acitretin is an effective treatment for PV; however, its influence on Th cells during the treatment of PV is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of acitretin on Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells in PV patients.
PV patients (n = 30) received acitretin p.o. (20 mg/day) for 8 weeks. Sera and skin biopsies were obtained before and after treatment. Double-labeled immunofluorescence was used to analyze T, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells in skin lesions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot were used to analyze the expressions of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 in sera and skin VS-4718 lesions. The expressions of IFN-gamma mRNA, IL-4 mRNA and IL-17 mRNA in skin lesions were detected by in situ hybridization. Acitretin decreased the quantity of T, Th1 and Th17 cells in PV lesions, but had no significant influence on Th2 cells. Acitretin also decreased the expression of IFN-gamma and IL-17 in serum and lesions. The expressions of IFN-gamma mRNA and IL-17 mRNA decreased significantly after 8 weeks of therapy. However, acitretin had no significant influence on the expression of IL-4 protein and mRNA. Acitretin can reverse Th1 and Th17 preponderance in PV patients to some degree. This may be due to the mechanism of acitretin on PV; however, Th2 cells were not affected by acitretin treatment.”
“BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a significant impact on patients’ health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Cavanna et al.