, 2007). The sampling of families used in the analyses described above is extensive and reveals that desiccation sensitivity is also wide spread in non-woody species. For example, desiccation sensitivity is quite widespread in palms and particular attention should be given to phenotypic plasticity in the seed storage response as a result of differences in seed developmental age at the time of natural
seed dispersal. Changes in relative desiccation tolerance can also be found in seeds from trees across their native range, and other aspects of seed quality, such as seed germination, are seen to vary; for example, Acer pseudoplatanus ( Daws and Pritchard, 2008). Whilst the botanical inventory for the developed world is comprehensive, that of the world’s tropics is not. For example, vast areas of the Brazilian Amazon await exploration selleck screening library and it is
estimated that when fully recorded the number of species of angiosperms Crenolanib research buy for the Brazilian flora will minimally double to 44,000–50,000 (Shepperd, 2003). Limited knowledge of plant diversity reflects the complexity of the tropical moist forest biome, difficult access, lack of systematic collections and the small number of botanists and other specialists in such regions. However, the need for conservation in tropical moist forests is greatest (World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, 1999). Even with stricter CHIR-99021 mw controls on deforestation, the Amazonian rainforest contracted by about 6,000 km2 per year
between 2005 and 2009 (Nepstad et al., 2009). At stake is the conservation of tree diversity; for example, more than 1,400 tree species are found in just two reserves close to Manaus, Brazil. In Brazil protected areas have been extended, reaching 16.6% of the continental area of the country by 2011 (Ministerio do Meio Ambiente, 2014). Nonetheless, deleterious human influence in these areas can still be a problem for the adequate preservation of forest species. Whilst current species lists can be limited to investigations carried out close to major cities, along roads and rivers (Nelson et al., 1990), they remain a key tool in conservation planning. Although most attention is often given to species of economic priority (FAO, 2014), from a global conservation perspective more consideration of endemic and endangered species is required to ensure their survival. Conservation status can be determined through field work, the analysis of historic herbarium specimen data, and by drawing on institutional and global resources, for example, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, 2014). However, there is the matter of how many herbarium specimens are needed to detect whether a species is threatened.