As indicated in the blue dash line in Figure 4b, the coupling length decreased with the increase of excited wavelength. The coupling length in a dual DLSPPW coupler can be considered as a selleck compound symmetric and an anti-symmetric modes propagating in the coupler with different propagation constants β + and β – . The phase shift φ ± is β ± L, where L is the propagation distance. Mode power in one of waveguide will transfer to the other waveguide when check details Δφ = φ + - φ - = π. The coupling length is defined as the distance for the π phase difference, where Δβ = β + - β -, Δn spp = n spp+ - n spp-. Since the L c is related to n spp. It will depend on the wavelength, modes, dielectric constants of materials, and geometry of the
waveguide. The reason is that increase of the wavelength will increase the SPP mode size. It has a longer evanescent tail overlapping
between neighboring waveguides. The coupling becomes stronger; thus, the coupling length is shorter. To verify the measurement of propagation properties in the directional coupler, both symmetric and asymmetric modes, the mode solver through vector finite-difference method was used. We found the coupling length, L c = 5.37 μm at wavelength λ = 700 nm. The length was decreased to L c = 3.99 μm at wavelength λ = 800 nm. Figure 4c shows the comparison between the measured and calculated results. The results 8-Bromo-cAMP cell line are in good agreement between calculated lengths and the measured leakage radiation images. Conclusions We proposed a new optical setup that provides
tunable spectral and modal excitation for surface through plasmon polariton waveguide. The SPP images with broadband and single wavelength excitation at different excitation positions were demonstrated. The waveguides with different layouts and materials can be quickly compared by this setup. We confirmed the better SPP mode for longer wavelength excitation on silver film-based waveguides. The coupling length of dual plasmonic coupler was studied by using tunable wavelength mode. An increase of SPP coupling with the increase of wavelength was observed and identified with the calculation results. This setup takes advantages of nanoscale excitation, lower background, wavelength selectivity, and controllable excitation positions for direct visualization. In addition to the proposed DLSPPW devices, this technique can be applied to study other types of plasmonic waveguides and devices, such as ring oscillators , interferometers , plasmonic logic gates , etc. Acknowledgments This work was supported by National Science Council, Taipei, Taiwan, under Contract No. NSC-100-2120-M-007-006, NSC-100-2221-E-001-010-MY3 and NSC-101-2218-E-001-001. Technical support from NanoCore, the core facilities for nanoscience and nanotechnology at Academia Sinica in Taiwan, is acknowledged. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Leakage radiation images of SPP waves.