Bifidobacteria and S thermophilus stimulated significant concent

Bifidobacteria and S. thermophilus stimulated significant concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, an interleukin necessary Compound Library mw for the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Treg)/T helper type 17 (Th17) cells and, as such, the study further examined the induction of

Th17 and Treg cells after PBMC exposure to selected bacteria for 96 h. Data show a significant increase in the numbers of both cell types in the exposed populations, measured by cell surface marker expression and by cytokine production. Probiotics have been shown to induce cytokines from a range of immune cells following ingestion of these organisms. These studies suggest that probiotics’ interaction with immune-competent cells produces a cytokine milieu, exerting immunomodulatory effects on local effector cells, as well as potently inducing differentiation of Th17 and Treg cells. Commensal bacteria in the intestinal lumen play an important role aiding digestion and synthesis of vitamins and nutrients. The composition of the gut bacterial population is relatively stable over time, but this profile can vary considerably between individuals [1]. This balance can be disturbed by dietary changes, stress and antibiotic treatment. However, a healthy balance can be re-established with probiotic supplementation, consisting mainly of Bifidobacterium species and selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which protect

the host by excluding pathogenic bacteria and promoting immune Roxadustat manufacturer Methisazone modulatory responses from the gut epithelia [2]. T helper cell (Th) subsets are regulators of the adaptive immune response against infection. Th1-type cells produce cytokines which include interleukin (IL)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, activate macrophages and promote cell-mediated immunity, protective against intracellular infections. Th2-type cells produce a variety of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 and promote humoral immune responses against extracellular pathogens [3]. Th17 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that produce a proinflammatory cytokine IL-17. Th17 cells have been shown recently

to play a critical role in clearing pathogens during host defence reactions and in inducing tissue inflammation in autoimmune disease [4]. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are thought to be the master regulators of the immune response in both humans and rodents. Defects in the transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), which defines the Treg lineage, results in multiple autoimmune diseases and atopy [5,6], demonstrating the central role of FoxP3+ CD4 cells in immune homeostasis. The probiotic, Lactobacillus (Lb) rhamnosus GG, has been shown to influence Th2-, Th1- and Th17-mediated disorders [7,8]. In addition, increases in FoxP3 mRNA expression in peri-bronchial lymph nodes have been noted upon administration of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lb.

Any dose adjustment should

Any dose adjustment should Palbociclib be based upon the objective results of these blood concentration data. In addition to the calcineurin inhibitors, all

the azoles apparently interact with sirolimus, but only itraconazole significantly interacts with corticosteroids. Data describing the interaction between azoles and sirolimus are limited. Two case reports describe an interaction between itraconazole and sirolimus producing toxic sirolimus concentrations within 6 days of initiating combination.90,91 Another case report describes a significant interaction between fluconazole, the weakest CYP3A4 inhibitor among the azoles, and sirolimus.92 Like itraconazole, the onset of the interaction occurred rapidly, and ultimately resulted MAPK Inhibitor Library research buy in toxic sirolimus concentrations.92 On average, voriconazole

reportedly increases systemic sirolimus exposure 11-fold.93 Therefore, co-administration of these agents is contraindicated. However, retrospective data including a moderately sized (n = 31 cases) medical record review suggest this significant interaction may be clinically manageable.94–97 Posaconazole co-administration in a small number (n = 12) of healthy volunteers produced approximately seven- to ninefold increase in sirolimus Cmax concentrations and exposure respectively.98 Until a larger study in patients is performed, this combination should be avoided.98 Interactions between azoles and corticosteroids involve primarily itraconazole. This azole inhibits the metabolism of oral and i.v. corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, and to a lesser extent, prednisolone. The interaction between itraconazole and these agents generally produces two- to fourfold increase in the individual corticosteroid Cmax, half-life and AUC0–∞.99–103 Depending on the dose, voriconazole increases oral prednisolone exposure to 13–30%, but these changes are not considered clinically significant.104 In addition to affecting corticosteroid GPX6 pharmacokinetics, depending

on the corticosteroid, the interaction with itraconazole produces a moderate to significant pharmacodynamic effect that manifests as a suppression (up to approximately 80%) of morning plasma cortisol concentration shortly after adding itraconazole to a corticosteroid containing regimen.99–103 There are no data detailing the impact on morning plasma cortisol concentration after adding voriconazole to a corticosteroid containing regimen. Although not used for their immunosuppressive properties, inhaled corticosteroids can also interact with itraconazole.105,106 Approximately 33% of an inhaled corticosteroid dose directly reaches the lungs, the rest is inadvertently swallowed. The inhaled and ingested fractions of the drug can be absorbed into the circulation and undergo extensive metabolism by enteric and/or hepatic CYP3A4.

“The prevalence of treated patients with end-stage renal d

“The prevalence of treated patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been increasing steadily in Japan. High ESRD prevalence could be explained by multiple factors such as better survival on dialysis therapy, luxury acceptance due to insurance system to cover dialysis therapy, and ‘truly’ high incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The growing elderly population

may also contribute to this trend. The Japanese Society of Nephrology estimated the prevalence of CKD stage 3 as 10.4%, 7.6% within the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 selleck compound in a screened population. Strong predictors of treated ESRD shown by using community-based screening programs and an ESRD registry in Okinawa are dip-stick-positive proteinuria and hypertension. Low glomerular filtration rate per se, which is often observed in the elderly population, is not

a significant predictor of developing ESRD unless associated with proteinuria. CKD is common in Japan and is expected to increase, particularly in the elderly population. Benefits of proteinuria screening and automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate on the incidence of ESRD remain to be determined. According to the annual report of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT), the prevalence of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients has been increasing for the past 20 years (Fig. 1).1 In the population aged 75 years and over, the prevalence is more than 0.5%. The incidence of ESRD is also increasing, particularly Selleckchem Dasatinib in those aged 75 years and over (Fig. 2). The main causes of ESRD incidence are diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic glomerulonephritis and nephrosclerosis. The incidence of DM is now more than 300 per million populations in those aged 65 years and over (Fig. 3). The mean age at start of dialysis therapy is over 65 years. There is a north (low) to south (high) gradient in the incidence and prevalence of ESRD without obvious explanation. GBA3 The CKD prevalence seemed to be increasing in Japan. According to a community-based

study in Hisayama, the age-adjusted prevalence of CKD stage 3 and 4 was 4.1% in 1974, 4.8% in 1988 and 8.7% in 2002 in men, and 7.3% in 1974, 11.2% in 1988 and 10.7% in 2002 in women.2 This secular trend may be related to both genetic and environmental factors. Low birthweight, which is associated with lower nephron number, might develop DM and hypertension and therefore increase risk of ESRD.3 However, such data is not available in Japan. Lifestyle-related factors that are often associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome may have a role in the development and progression of CKD.4,5 Japan has a long history of universal screening systems including urine test for proteinuria and haematuria.6,7 It is not mandatory, however, so the fraction of people participating has been low at approximately 20–30%.

The first was the one induced with multiple low doses of streptoz

The first was the one induced with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLD–STZ). STZ is a chemical substance with alkylation properties that interferes with glucose transportation. A single high-dose strategy results in severe toxicity and acute diabetes. Conversely, the multiple low-dose regimen, characterized by minimal β cell toxicity, BMN673 results in autoantigen release and a possible break in self-tolerance [3]. The T cell dependence of this model is a debated topic, and needs

further evaluation. What is well established is that diabetes in this model cannot be transferred reliably to syngenic recipients by transfer of splenocytes [4]. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are an inbred strain derived from Jcl:ICR mice [5], which develop type 1 diabetes spontaneously. The infiltration in the islets starts around 4–5 weeks, when pockets of lymphocytes are first observed juxtaposed to the pancreatic islets of young NOD mice. As the animals grow older, these mononuclear cells migrate into the islets, and by the time hyperglycaemia occurs destructive insulitis is present. This model is very similar to the human disease. Disease onset, for example, is preceded by infiltration of pancreatic islets by mononuclear cells and is controlled by many quantitative trait loci, particularly major histocompatibility

complex (MHC) class II genes. Diabetes in NOD mice is the most extensively studied model of autoimmune

disease [6, 7]. The discovery of regulatory T cells learn more (Tregs) disclosed a new field to be explored in the control of autoimmune pathologies [8]. Heat shock proteins (hsps) are molecules up-regulated in conditions of stress that are highly conserved throughout evolution [9]. Although recent research implicates hsp60 as an autoantigen involved in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis [10], this protein also contributes to protection against autoimmune diseases. It has been described that microbial homologues of mammalian hsps could induce the recruitment of Tregs to inflamed tissues [9]. In this study, we investigated the possible protection against type 1 diabetes through a prime-boost vaccination strategy. This strategy consists in priming the system with the antigen administered in one vector and then boosting it with the same antigen, but through another PAK6 vector [11]. Thus, we made use of two different vaccines containing mycobacterial hsp65: bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) and pVAXhsp65, a DNA vaccine. This association could, theoretically, be interesting because both vaccines have been already tested separately against diabetes and other autoimmune diseases and showed positive results [12-15]. We hypothesized that the prime-boost strategy could expand these beneficial effects. Female NOD mice and male C57BL/6 mice were obtained from the animal facility of State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil).

The autocrine role of IL-10 in B cell differentiation was demonst

The autocrine role of IL-10 in B cell differentiation was demonstrated further by the inhibitory effect of anti-IL-10 treatment on IgA secretion that was induced selleck chemicals by the dual ligation of CD40 and antigen-receptor without alterations in cell growth [60]. Altogether, our experiments show that IL-10 directly activates the STAT3 pathway so that there is co-operation between the STAT3 pathway and the classical NF-κB pathway that is activated downstream of CD40 ligation (anti-pNF-κB p65 inhibited the STAT3 pathway and vice versa). Because blocking peptides to pNF-kB p50 did not interfere with IgA production, we suggest that p65 homodimers interact with pSTAT3 for enhancing/sustaining AID transcription and IgA production. As p50 does

not possess a DNA binding

motif, this complex would contain another Rel subunit to bind to κB motifs. It seems that complexes formed between p50 homodimers and STAT3 bind to GAS sites, whereas p65/STAT3 complexes bind to κB motifs, as was described previously in another model [18]. In this context, the NF-κB and STAT3 pathways affect each other via an unknown mechanism. It is plausible that after stimulation by IL-1 or IL-6 that STAT3 would form a complex with pNF-κB p65 to facilitate NF-κB binding to DNA [17]. However, we did not focus on IL-1 in this study because we found IL-1 to be unable to phosphorylate STAT3 (unpublished data and [26]). pSTAT3 is able to form a complex with unphosphorylated NF-κB dimers, which bind to κB sites [19]. Summarizing, we suggest that (i) CD40L stimulation induces pNF-κB dimers (interacting or not with unphosphorylated STAT3) to bind to κB sites, (ii) CD40L stimulation promotes IL-10R expression on the B ICG-001 clinical trial cell surface, rendering STAT3 more reactive to IL-10 signalling and many (iii) IL-10 stimulation induces pSTAT3 dimers to bind to GAS sites and pSTAT3 dimers interacting with unphosphorylated NF-κB to bind to κB sites. The fact that IL-10 induces the binding of dimers on both κB and GAS sites can account for the enhanced IgA production. Deciphering the machinery of IgA differentiation is valuable to mucosal immunology and vaccinology, as IgA represents the major protective barrier of mucosal surfaces. Immunological

protection composed of a targeted, specific IgA response provided by either conventional or bioengineering vaccines, especially against invading microbes, may prove to be an achievable goal in the future. The authors gratefully acknowledge Françoise Boussoulade, Patricia Chavarin and Sophie Acquart for their technical help, Philip Lawrence and Samantha Pauls for kindly revising the manuscript and Professors Christian Genin and Frederic Lucht for valuable support. Financial support was provided by grants from the Convention Interregional du Massif Central ‘Réseau switch’ MENRT 01Y0242b and the Regional Blood Bank, EFS Auvergne-Loire, France. Sandrine Lafarge holds a fellowship from the French Ministry for Education, Research and Technology (MENRT).

This occurred when all of the following

This occurred when all of the following click here criteria were met: recipient age 18–59 years, deceased donor age less than live donor age, and deceased donor HLA match better than live donor HLA match. The impact of waiting on dialysis was not taken into account in this analysis. The impact of waiting time on the success of transplantation has been examined in several studies. Meier-Kriesche et al. analyzed United States Renal Data System (USRDS) data from 73 103 primary adult renal transplants performed between 1988 and 1997.7 There was a progressive rise in the risk of

death and death-censored graft loss with increasing time on dialysis prior to transplantation. The increases in mortality risk for waiting relative to pre-emptive transplantation were as follows: 6–12 month wait, 21%; 12–24 month wait, 28%; 24–36 month wait, 41%; 36–48 month wait, 53%; and >48 month wait, 72%. In another publication, Meier-Kriesche and Kaplan reported that waiting for a live donor transplant for more than 2 years while on dialysis reduced

graft survival to the same level as that for deceased MI-503 supplier donor transplants performed within 6 months of commencing dialysis.8 Using UNOS Registry data, Gjertson reported that pre-transplant dialysis time accounted for 12–13% of the variation seen in 1-year graft survival rates for both live and deceased donor transplantation.9 Also using UNOS Registry data, Kasiske et al. reported that the relative risk of death or graft failure, was lower in deceased donor and live donor recipients who were transplanted pre-emptively, compared with those transplanted following commencement of dialysis.10 Racial minority groups and those with a lower level of education were less likely to be transplanted pre-emptively. With regards to recipients who are less than 18 years old, a study by Ishitani et al. examined the success of live, related donor transplantation in paediatric recipients using UNOS Registry data.11 When compared with pre-emptive

transplantation, there was a relative risk of graft failure of 1.77 in those transplanted after dialysis had commenced. Kennedy et al. used ANZDATA to examine graft outcomes in transplanted adolescents, and also reported improved outcomes with pre-emptive transplantation.12 Wolfe et al. compared the survival PD184352 (CI-1040) of those on the waiting list with those for individuals receiving a primary deceased donor transplant.13 Standardized mortality ratios were derived from an analysis of 228 552 subjects on dialysis. A total of 46 164 individuals were on the waiting list, of whom 23 275 received a primary deceased donor transplant over a 7-year period of observation. The annual death rate for those on the waiting list was 6.3 per 100 patient-years. By comparison, those transplanted had a long-term annual death rate of 3.8 per 100 patient-years. The improvement in relative risk of mortality was most pronounced for young, white recipients (20–39 years) and for people with diabetes.

The use of mouse models offers a feasible alternative to human ob

The use of mouse models offers a feasible alternative to human observations, when hypothesis-driven studies are needed, but mouse-in-mouse systems do not always reflect the pathology of human diseases. In many aGVHD models, the effector cell is based on infusion of murine splenocytes which may behave differently to human effector cells; furthermore, conventional mice are not well aligned to the study of human cell therapy products. The introduction of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor gamma mutation onto the non-obese diabetic

(NOD)-severe compromised immunodeficient (SCID) background has allowed for the development Selleck Epigenetics Compound Library of refined mouse models. NOD-SCID IL-2rγnull (NSG) mice are deficient for T, B and NK cell activity and allow engraftment of high levels of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) [29]. The NSG model offers an opportunity to examine human donor cells in combination with clinical cell therapeutics. Using a humanized NSG mouse model of aGVHD, this study sought to examine the effect of human MSC cell therapy, and to investigate the possible therapeutic mechanisms involved. Human MSC cell therapy significantly prolonged the survival of

NSG mice with aGVHD, reducing target organ pathology. MSC therapy did not interfere with donor PBMC engraftment or involve the induction of donor T Autophagy Compound Library cell apoptosis, anergy or regulatory cell expansion, but rather the direct inhibition of both donor CD4+ T cell proliferation and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. All procedures involving animals or human material were carried out by licensed personnel according to approved guidelines. Ethical approval for all work was received from the ethics committee of National University of Ireland (NUI) Maynooth. A humanized mouse model of aGVHD was adapted and optimized from a protocol described by Pearson et al. [29]. NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIL2tmlWjl/Szj mice (NOD-SCID IL-2rγnull) (NSG) (Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbour, ME, USA) were exposed to a conditioning dose of 2·4 Gray (Gy) of whole-body gamma irradiation. Human PBMC from healthy volunteer donors were isolated by Ficoll-density

centrifugation and administered intravenously (i.v.) to NSG mice (6·3 × 105 g−1) via the tail vein 4 h following irradiation. Negative control mice received a sham infusion of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Signs of aGVHD occurred typically between days 12 and 15 post-PBMC transfusion. Cobimetinib research buy In some mice, conventional human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) (4·4 × 104 g−1) therapy was administered on day 7 post-PBMC transfusion. In other groups, interferon (IFN)-γ stimulated MSC (4·4 × 104 g−1) were administered concurrent with PBMC on day 0. The level of human cell chimerism was analysed by flow cytometry (days 4, 8 and 12), examining the expression of CD45+ cells and the ratios between human CD4 and CD8 T cells. aGVHD development was determined by examining features daily including body weight, ruffled fur, locomotor activity, posture and diarrhoea.

01% Tween 20/PBS for 30 min Subsequently, cells were incubated w

01% Tween 20/PBS for 30 min. Subsequently, cells were incubated with fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies [Ax488 goat anti-mouse IgG1/2a, Ax546 goat anti-mouse IgG1, Ax546 goat anti-rabbit IgG, Ax546 donkey anti-goat IgG (Invitrogen)] in 2% BSA/0.01% Tween 20/PBS

for 30 min and mounted using DakoCytomation mounting medium. Imaging was performed using a Zeiss EX-527 LSM 510 META confocal microscope equipped with a 63 × /1.4 NA oil-immersion objective and an AxioCam HR (Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany), using laser excitation at 488, 561 and 633 nm. DPC localization was evaluated as the area fraction of fluorescent pixels at the DPC relative to total area of fluorescent pixels for the cell/bead conjugate using the image analysis software ImageJ developed by Wayne Rasband, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Graphs were made in SigmaPlot 8.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test, conducted in spss 16.0 for Windows (Chicago, IL, USA). Upon sustained T cell activation, maintained type II PKA association with the centrosome and the microtubule organizing centre [16] and redistribution of type I PKA (in mouse T cells) [17] have been described. Additionally, type I PKA localization has been observed at the IS and at the DPC of primary human T cells activated by SEB-pulsed Raji B cells [5]. We found type

I PKA [regulatory subunit (R)Iα] to mainly localize with filamentous

(F)-actin close to the cell membrane in resting primary human T cells (Fig. 1B, upper panel). Upon activation with CD3/CD28-coated beads, F-actin accumulated at the cell/bead contact zone, a known hallmark of productive TCR engagement alongside reorientation of the microtubule organizing centre identified here by β-tubulin staining (Fig. 1A, [3]). The accumulation intensified and persisted for at least 20 min (Fig. 1B, left column, Interleukin-3 receptor and A) and was used as a marker for activated conjugates. About 1 min after activation, RIα was recruited to the IS, then distributed back in the membrane at 5 min before translocating to the distal pole (DP) of the cell (20 min) (Fig. 1B, middle column). After 20 min, RIα was localized at the DP in 69 ± 4% of activated T cells (mean ± SEM, n = 100 T cells from each of three donors). Thus, CD3/CD28-coated beads robustly and reproducibly generated a high percentage of activated T cells, in which RIα was consistently found to migrate via the IS to the DP. To align cross-ligation with CD3/CD28-coated beads with a more physiological mode of activation, we stimulated primary human T cells for 30 min with SE-primed Raji B cells (Fig. 1C). In successfully activated T cells (31 ± 10% of the conjugates, mean ± SEM, n = 100 T cells from each of two donors), CD3 accumulated at the IS at the T cell/Raji B cell interface (Fig. 1C, left column).

7D) Thus, in vivo infusion with DC-FcγRIIb could protect MRL/lpr

7D). Thus, in vivo infusion with DC-FcγRIIb could protect MRL/lpr mice from obvious nephritis injuries. Finally, in vivo administration of DC-FcγRIIb, before (4-wk-old) or after (10-wk-old) the onset of clinic lupus, was found to be able to significantly prolong the survival of MRL/lpr mice, whereas MRL/lpr mice receiving DC-GFP or DCs all died by 40 wk (Fig. 7E). Thus, in vivo administration of DC-FcγRIIb CHIR-99021 mw could protect MRL/lpr mice from lupus progression, both preventively and therapeutically. SLE is a progressive systemic autoimmune disease, for which current therapy relies largely on long-term suppression of the immune system. We

here provide a short-term treatment regimen to attenuate lupus progression. Single infusion of DC-FcγRIIb, either before or after the onset of clinic lupus, into lupus-prone mice exerts a significant protection from lupus progression. The presence of large amounts of circulating IC in SLE may be potent stimulator for DCs. However, selleck chemicals llc for DC-FcγRIIb, these IC might become potent inhibitor of DC maturation through binding to the preferentially expressed FcγRIIb. FcγRIIb-mediated negative signal contributes to the maintenance of immature/tolerogenic property of DCs. The consequence of this event results in suppression of antigen-specific

T-cell responses and thereby inhibition of B-cell responses, furthermore reducing the generation of autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies. It has been previously reported that decreased FcγRIIb expression is associated with the progression of lupus;

it would therefore make sense that artificial enhancement of the inhibitory FcγRIIb expression on some cell types could possibly provide an efficient approach for the treatment of lupus. In addition to the maintenance of DC tolerogenecity, IC also induce massive PGE2 production from DCs and more PGE2 from DC-FcγRIIb. PGE2 might play a protective role in autoimmune responses via directly inhibiting both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, inducing Foxp3+ Treg differentiation, suppressing B-cell activation and Ig production 28–32. Moreover, PGE2 Dipeptidyl peptidase may be also responsible for the inhibition of TLR-induced DC maturation because PGE2-triggered signal is involved in the downregulation of TLR4 expression 27. It is worth investigating whether PGE2 also contributes to inhibition of TLR7 and TLR9 expression, because natural activators of TLR9 and TLR7 can be found in the blood of lupus patients. FcγRIIb seems to be a redundant receptor to mediate PGE2 production, because FcγRIIb−/− DCs can also produce certain amount of PGE2 although much less than that produced by WT DCs in response to stimuli. We found that DCs express more FcγRIIa than FcγRIIb (Supporting Information Fig. 5), suggesting that other activating FcγRs might contribute to the production of PGE2 by IC. Once pretreated with IC and then triggered with TLR-ligands, FcγRIIb−/− DCs could secrete certain level of PGE2.

First, data from the OT1 system using recombinant TCR, where no t

First, data from the OT1 system using recombinant TCR, where no triggering is present, shows that 2D off-rate for agonist is even faster than that of native TCR on the cell surface (Liu, B. et al., our unpublished data). Second, all the TCRs in the current study showed fast kinetics, reaching adhesion plateau from the shortest contact time of 0.1 s. The fact that the adhesion did not increase further in longer contact times suggests that factors contributing to the adhesion did not change significantly over the time scale of our 2D measurement. Thus, should signaling have occurred, it was within 0.1 s, which, to the best of

GSI-IX order our knowledge, is faster than any documented T-cell

signaling events. Third, in our 2D assays, off-rate measurement was performed at zero-force condition. As we elaborated previously [27, 37], in the adhesion frequency assay, the stretch at the end of each contact is merely a means of detecting whether a bond was present at the very end of the contact; the binary readout (bond or no bond) but not bond duration are analyzed PLX3397 in vitro with a mathematical model to derive the off-rate. In the thermal fluctuation assay, more direct evidence is available for the zero-force condition because we quantitatively monitor the force (by tracking the position of the biomembrane force probe (BFP) probe bead). If any cellular processes impose forces significantly deviate from zero on individual TCR–pMHC bonds, we should have observed them (the BFP has a ∼1 pN force resolution). Fourth, the surface density of pMHC is carefully controlled such that, at any moment of contact, the majority of adhesion events are mediated by a single bond [37]. Therefore, although we cannot rule out a possible

role of T-cell signaling, these factors would favor the proposition that 2D TCR–pMHC off-rate most likely reflects an intrinsic property of the native TCR in the cell membrane. One intriguing property of 2D off-rate (or bond lifetime) for the gp100 system is that higher potency corresponds to a faster off-rate (thus shorter bond lifetime), which was also observed in the OT1 [27], 42F3 [33], and 2B4 and 5C.C7 [28] TCR systems. However, higher potency interactions have much higher on-rates. Evaluation based on both on-rates and off-rates is actually consistent with the serial engagement model [27] and the total confinement time model [42]. Take 19LF6 TCR as an example. The measured on-rate (Ackon) is 0.072 μm4s−1 and off-rate (koff) is 11.4/s. For typical surface densities of 15 TCR/μm2 (mTCR) and 6 pMHC/μm2 (mpMHC) on a T cell and an RBC, respectively, it takes on average 0.15 s (1/(Ackon×mTCR×mpMHC)) for a new TCR–pMHC bond to form and 0.088 s (1/koff) to dissociate.