3B) It has been reported that H pylori whole cells stimulate

3B). It has been reported that H. pylori whole cells stimulate

the generation of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils ( Handa et al., 2010). Total ROS production comprises intra- and extracellular release and increase of ROS production is associated with an increased level of DNA damage/repair in epithelial cells ( Machado et al., 2010). Here we evaluated the total, intra- and extracellular production of reactive oxygen species in rHPU-activated neutrophils. Cells were exposed to rHPU or PMA (positive control, not shown) and total ROS production was measured using Selleckchem PS-341 luminol-amplified luminescence. Fig. 4, panels A–D, show that neutrophil exposed to 100 nM rHPU had a 2.5 fold increase in total HSP inhibitor drugs ROS production as compared to controls. Extracellular ROS release was measured using lucigenin, a chemiluminescent probe that is more specific for superoxide anions released extracellularly, while CM-H2DCFDA was used to measure intracellular ROS production ( Abe et al., 2000; Espinosa et al., 2009). Data shown in Fig. 4E indicated that the increased ROS production induced by rHPU is entirely directed toward the extracellular

medium. The regulation of neutrophil apoptosis during an inflammatory response is a key point for its resolution (Serhan and Savill, 2005). As the intensity of gastric tissue damage in H. pylori infection correlates with the neutrophil density ( Allen, 2001), we investigated the neutrophil viability after a 20 h culture in the presence of 100 nM rHPU or 100 nM IL-8. Fig. 5A shows that neutrophil apoptosis is significantly delayed when the cells are exposed to rHPU. The anti-apoptotic effect of rHPU persisted for the enzyme-inhibited protein after treatment with p-hydroxy-mercurybenzoate (not shown). Human neutrophils have a very short half-life, characterized by a constitutive expression of proapoptotic proteins, and almost undetectable levels of anti-apoptotic proteins ( Akgul et al., 2001). Fig. 5C shows that rHPU-activated neutrophils

had lower levels Bay 11-7085 of Bad, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member. On the other hand, rHPU induced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL ( Fig. 5B), increasing the survival rate of neutrophils. We then investigated the involvement of 5-lipoxygenase products in the anti-apoptotic effect of rHPU. Data shown in Fig. 5D indicated that the protective effect is at least partly due to production of leukotrienes, given that pre-treatment of neutrophils with AA861 reverted this effect (Fig. 5D). Two metabolites of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway, leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, have been identified as important mediators of inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract (Wang and Dubois, 2010).

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