73 m2). Serum Pevonedistat ic50 concentration of loxoprofen
sodium and its trans-OH metabolite following a single oral dose of 60 mg have been reported to be PD0332991 supplier 5.04 ± 0.27 and 0.85 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively . We found that both serum concentrations were much lower, 100.2 ± 75.0 and 50.4 ± 45.2 ng/mL, respectively, after the application of transdermal LX-Ps. Moreover, these patches had no effect on PGE2 concentrations. Taken together, these results suggest that topically administered loxoprofen sodium was safer for patients with renal impairment than the orally administered agent. Loxoprofen sodium and its trans-OH metabolite are both metabolized in and secreted by the liver and kidneys, suggesting that, in patients with renal impairment, their serum concentrations would be higher in patients with AKI than in those with normal renal function. To assess whether serum concentrations of these molecules differed according to renal function, we examined the relationship of each to eGFRcys. However, we did not detect any correlations. check details These findings indicated
that loxoprofen sodium and its active metabolite were not increased in patients with severe renal impairment. This suggests that the absorption of loxoprofen sodium by the systemic circulation is lower when this agent is administered topically than orally, and is therefore not altered by renal function. We predict that the concentration of loxoprofen sodium and its trans-OH metabolite are in equilibrium after five consecutive days, but the details of their pharmacokinetics in patients with renal impairment is still unknown. We analyzed the correlation between the concentration of loxoprofen sodium or its trans-OH metabolite and urinary PGE2. There was no correlation between the concentrations of loxoprofen sodium and urinary PGE2 (P = 0.345), or between the trans-OH metabolite and urinary PGE2 (P = 0.370) (data not shown). We postulated that this is because the concentrations of loxoprofen sodium and its trans-OH metabolite were so low and in such a narrow range. NSAIDs are associated with elevated blood pressure and a higher incidence of hypertension [14–19] because
they inhibit the production of prostaglandins. However, we found that topically administered loxoprofen sodium did not significantly affect systolic or diastolic blood pressure, Isotretinoin likely because it does not decrease prostaglandins. In conclusion, in contrast to orally administered loxoprofen sodium, topically administered LX-Ps did not increase serum loxoprofen concentrations or decrease urinary PGE2 concentrations in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. Topical LX-Ps had no effect on renal function or on blood pressure in these patients. Although our study was limited by the small number of patients, topical LX-Ps showed good short-term safety and efficacy results in patients with diabetic nephropathy.