8 vs. 27.1 months), duration of response (DOR) (38.5 vs. 21.3 months) and overall survival (OS) (median not reached vs. 69.8 months), but the overall response rate (ORR) was similar (45.6% and
35.9%). NAs have been studied in combination with rituximab and/or alkylating agents for increasing the quality and duration of the response. Hematologic toxicities are a major concern, limiting the indication for NAs in first-line treatment to patients who are not candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation, those in need of rapid control of the disease, or those with poor prognostic factors.\n\nWaldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is characterized by mature lymphoplasmacytic bone marrow Selleck Poziotinib infiltration and the production of monoclonal IgM. WM represents 1% to 2% of hematologic neoplasms. Therapy is reserved for symptomatic patients with constitutional symptoms (recurrent fever, night sweats, fatigue resulting from anemia, and weight loss), progressive symptomatic lymphadenopathy or splenomegaly, cytopenia (hemoglobin value of <= 10 g/dL or a platelet count <= 100 X 10(9)/L), and complications
from monoclonal IgM (hyperviscosity syndrome, symptomatic peripheral neuropathy, systemic JQ1 datasheet amyloidosis, and cryoglobulinemia).\n\nTreatment usually consists of alkylating agents (chlorambucil, cydophosphamide), nucleoside analogues (NAs-cladribine, fludarabine), and monoclonal antibodies (rituximab), alone or in combination. NAs are antimetabolite drugs that
inhibit DNA synthesis and DNA strand break repair, particularly in lymphocytes. NA was first used in WM for patients with refractory and relapsing disease after treatment with alkylating agents. The efficacy of NAs in first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia led to the study, beginning in 1999, of primary therapy with NAs in WM, alone or in combination with alkylating A-1210477 molecular weight agents and monoclonal antibodies. Improvement in overall response rate (ORR) and quality of response resulted. The efficacy of an NA-based regimen is counterbalanced by hematologic toxicities and long-term effects.”
“Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) can be used to estimate excess kurtosis, which is a dimensionless measure for the deviation of water diffusion pro. le from Gaussian distribution. Several recent studies have applied DKI to probe the restricted water diffusion in biological tissues. The directional analysis has also been developed to obtain the directionally specific kurtosis. However, these studies could not directly evaluate the sensitivity of DKI in detecting subtle neural tissue alterations. Brain maturation is known to involve various biological events that can affect water diffusion properties, thus providing a sensitive platform to evaluate the efficacy of DKI.