Naming interfered by unrelated words strongly engaged these areas, while they were suppressed for target-related, especially facilitatory, distractors due to lower demands. Moreover, the caudal part of ACC has been associated with controlled priming and controlled attentional processes, while the rostral part of ACC has been related to automatic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical priming and might reflect an automatic attentional system and monitors the automatic lexical access

to semantic relations (Rossell et al. 2001). The joint suppression for facilitatory distractors in rostral ACC reveals low demands on automated processing. Priming of controlled processing in caudal ACC can be found for all three distractor types (see Fig. 6 for parameter estimates; Table 5). Medial temporal/parahippocampal gyrus has shown to be implicated in memory retrieval and encoding (Cabeza and Nyberg 2000). This brain region Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical formerly has been found for priming (Rossell et al. 2003; Raposo et al. 2006). Thus, repetition suppression of this area for the facilitatory distractors may be attributed to the beneficial impact of relatedness on memory processing. We may speculate that the retrieval from memory is easier for words that have been preactivated by their connection

to neighboring words. Alternatively, if the learning of new associations (Horner and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Henson 2008) between distractor and target picture is considered, it may be less demanding to store two semantically or phonologically related words than to store two arbitrary word combinations. For both distractor types with feature overlap, there Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were commonly suppressed brain areas related to visual and conceptual processing (bilateral occipitotemporal regions), phonetic/articulatory processing (mainly left precentral gyrus, BA 4, and parietal operculum/insula), and to a minor extent monitoring (left ACC). Cognitively

speaking, an overlap of features contains a facilitatory, but also a concurring, potential. The phonological distractor is not Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical especially competitive as it does not meet the semantic properties of the target, while it primes its phonetic features, Batimastat phonemes, and syllable slots. Thus, despite partly or full activation of the concurrent word form, further conflict processing is not especially important. The overlap of semantic features in the categorical distractor also primes the target. But at the same time, this distractor type covers a large portion of target semantics and selleck chem Tipifarnib thereby, its motor preparation may occur effortless and unnoticed, until its false selection is meantime detected by monitoring processes and inhibited by cognitive control processes (see also below for a discussion on Finkbeiner and Caramazza 2006). The facilitatory aspects of feature overlap become evident by the primed visual, conceptual, and motor brain regions.

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