ginkgodens. This discovery brings the total number of Mesoplodon species to 15, making it, by far, the most speciose yet least known genus of cetaceans. “
“We applied temporal symmetry capture–recapture
(TSCR) models to assess the strength of evidence for factors potentially responsible for population decline in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand from 1995 to 2008. Model selection was conducted to estimate recruitment and population growth rates. There were similar levels of support for three different models, each reflecting distinct trends in recruitment. Modeling yielded low overall estimates of recruitment HER2 inhibitor (0.0249, 95% CI: 0.0174–0.0324) and population growth rate (0.9642, 95% CI: 0.9546–0.9737). The TSCR rate of population decline was consistent with an estimate derived from trends in abundance (lambda = 0.9632, 95% CI: 0.9599–0.9665). The TSCR model selection confirmed the influence of a decline in the survival of calves (<1 yr old) since 2002 for population trends. However, TSCR population growth rates did not exceed 1 in any year between 1995 and 2008, indicating the population was declining prior to 2002. A separate reduction in juvenile survival (1–3 yr old) prior
to 2002 was identified as a likely contributing factor in the population decline. Thus, TSCR modeling indicated the potential cause of the population decline in Doubtful Sound: cumulative impacts on individuals AZD6244 <3 yr old resulting in a reduced recruitment. "
“Five years of behavioral observations revealed significant effects of high air temperatures and breeding site topography on the mating system of South American sea Anacetrapib lions in Peru. Unlike most polygynous mammals that defend females or fixed territories, male sea lions in Peru maintained positions along the shoreline where females passed each day to thermoregulate, and where most copulations occurred. Sex ratios (1 male per 17 females)
and male mating success were extremely skewed (14% of males achieved 50% of the copulations, and 25% of them did not copulate at all). The mass daily movements of females toward the water and cool substrate of the shoreline, along with a highly skewed sex ratio, accentuated the difficulty for males to monopolize and restrict female movements. Females moved freely and chose their mates, unlike in temperate regions of their range where male South American sea lions control groups of females or access to tide pools. Our observations indicate that the South American sea lion in Peru has a lek-like breeding system. This is a rare alternative to the common male strategies of defending females and resources, and is likely an evolutionary product of their highly skewed sex ratio, protracted breeding season, and the extreme subtropical climate where they breed.