Homozygous mutations of ATM are responsible for ataxia-telangiect

Homozygous mutations of ATM are responsible for ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a rare autosomal recessive disease mainly characterized by progressive degeneration in the cerebellum, immunodeficiency, radiosensitivity, and cancer predisposition [20, 21]. Although A-T heterozygotes are usually asymptomatic and, overall considered healthy carriers, a link between single copy ATM mutations and a two to five fold risk of breast cancer has been established [22]. check details Recently, we have developed a straightforward, rapid, and inexpensive test to unambiguously

diagnose A-T heterozygotes that would allow an easy recognition of breast cancer patients carrying monoallelic MAPK Inhibitor Library ATM germline mutations [23]. In the current studies, we assessed whether ATM depletion by RNA interference sensitize cells from breast cancer lines to PARP inhibitors. As ATM mutations and loss of ATM expression can be found in hereditary and sporadic breast cancers and A-T heterozygotes can be diagnosed [23], we hypothesized that such data might be useful in extending

the molecular predictors required for selecting patients responsive to PARP inhibition. HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials Materials and methods Cell culture and reagents Human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR-75-1, and their transfected-derivatives were maintained in DMEM-Glutamax and RPMI-Glutamax, respectively, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 U/ml streptomycin (all from Invitrogen). All cell lines were maintained in a 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37°C. Cells were passaged once every 3–5 days (~90% confluence) and all experiments were performed within the first 10 passages from transfection. For drug treatment, doxorubicin (Sigma) and PARP inhibitors, olaparib and iniparib (Selleckchem), were prepared as stock solution in water or DMSO, respectively, aliquot and stored at -80°C until use. Stable knockdown of ATM in cells of breast cancer lines Stable interference was obtained by retroviral-mediated expression of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) using pRETRO-Super

vector. Retroviruses were produced in HEK 293 T cells by cotransfecting pRETRO-Super together with plasmids encoding for gag-pol and VSV-G proteins. Viral supernatant was collected 48 hrs post-transfection, Progesterone filtered through a 0.45 μm pore size filter and added to the cells in the presence of 2 μg/ml polybrene. After 48 hrs from infection, stable polyclonal populations of control and ATM-depleted cells were obtained by selection for two weeks with 2 μg/ml puromycin (Sigma). The shATM construct (#1 position 912) in pRETRO-Super, generously provided by Y. Lerenthal and Y. Shiloh, has the following sequence: 5′-GAC TTT GGC TGT CAA CTT TCG-3′ [24]. Control shRNA, siR5, has the following sequence: 5′-GGA TAT CCC TCT AGA TTA-3′. Neither the ATM-targeting shRNA nor the control sequences have any homology with other human gene as tested by BLAST (http://​blast.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​Blast.​cgi).

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