However, scientists have proved that more stations and more satel

However, scientists have proved that more stations and more satellites are needed for models of higher spatial and temporal resolution [17]. Therefore, BDS consisting five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites now and another 23 additional MEO satellites expected by 2020 [1,2] will provide a huge number of observations and ensure significant improvements to current GNSS meteorology. Thus, in this contribution we concentrate on retrieving tropospheric delays from BDS observations.There are two data processing modes for estimating ZTD from GNSS observations: PPP mode and network mode. In the PPP mode, precise satellite orbits and clocks must be available and are fixed as known in the processing, so that data can be processed station-by-station.

This strategy is very computationally efficient and can be performed for any number of stations. In the network mode, a number of stations are processed together where satellite clocks are estimated as additional parameters or cancelled by forming differential observations between stations. Although the network mode is really time-consuming compared to the PPP mode, precise satellite clocks are not required as a pre-condition. It is already confirmed with a large set of GPS data that the two processing schemes provide ZTD results of similar quality [12].In this study, a test network comprising six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable dual-frequency receivers is deployed in Hebei Province with an inter-station distance of about 100 km.

GPS and BDS data from this network are processed independently in both network and PPP mode to estimate ZTDs. The BDS-derived estimates are validated by comparing with that of GPS. The assessment shows that the bias and standard deviation (STD) of the ZTD differences are 2 mm and 5 to 6 mm, respectively, which is similar to the differences of GPS ZTD derived from different software packages [12].2.?Tracking NetworksIn order to carry out PPP for BDS observations of a local or regional network, precise orbit and clock products must be computed in advance. By the way, for network solutions, precise orbits are also needed to get rid of the broadcast orbit errors. Therefore, a global network is required for precise orbit determination and clock estimation.

The BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network with BDS and GPS capacity has been deployed for scientific Batimastat purposes by the GNSS research center at Wuhan University and is now extending to a global tracking network. Since March 2011, 14 stations have already been deployed in China and its neighboring regions. Among these, nine stations are located inside the territory of China and five overseas. The stations in China are BJF1 in Beijing, CENT in Wuhan, CHDU in Chengdu, HRBN in Harbin, HKTU in Hong Kong, NTSC and XIAN in Xi’an city, SHAO in Shanghai, and LASA in Tibet.

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