It is well documented that obesity is associated with chronic low

It is well documented that obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, impaired iron homeostasis,19 and elevated production of the adipokine leptin, which in turn increases hepatic hepcidin production.20 Both overnutrition and inflammation are associated with ER stress and the induction of the UPR.11, 12 Recent work has shown that this leads to enhanced production of hepcidin,16, 17 which, once released from hepatocytes into the circulation, interacts with the iron efflux protein ferroportin and blocks iron release from a number of

cell types, including hepatocytes,18 resulting in elevated intracellular iron levels. The present study by Graham et al. shows that increased intracellular iron is significantly and positively associated with elevated hepatic

cholesterol synthesis, further contributing to the liver lipid burden. FGFR inhibitor The combination of steatosis and cellular iron loading (together with increased FFAs) could result in increased oxidative stress, which would exacerbate the progression from fatty liver to NASH, cirrhosis, and potentially hepatocellular carcinoma. Although many of these links and hypotheses remain to be proven, the study by Graham et al. opens up a number of new Selleck SCH727965 avenues for future investigation of the relation between iron and lipid metabolism. “
“Background and Aim:  We investigated whether intrahepatic markers could predict response in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients treated with peg-interferon and adefovir for 48 weeks. Methods:  Intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), total intrahepatic HBV DNA and the proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) positive hepatocytes in 16 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 24 HBeAg negative patients were measured at baseline and at end of treatment. Results:  Baseline intrahepatic markers were not associated with sustained virological response (SVR) defined as HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL and persistent normal

alanine aminotransferase levels at the end of follow-up (week 72). At end of treatment, intrahepatic cccDNA and total intrahepatic HBV DNA in HBeAg positive patients were significantly lower in patients with HBeAg seroconversion (P = 0.016 and P = 0.010) Sirolimus nmr with positive predictive values (PPV) for SVR of 80% and 80%, respectively. In HBeAg negative patients, intrahepatic cccDNA and total intrahepatic HBV DNA had declined significantly at end of treatment (P = 0.035 and P = 0.041) and corresponding PPV for SVR was 73% and 82%. In HBeAg positive patients, median proportion of HBcAg positive hepatocytes declined significantly (P = 0.002) at end of treatment. In HBeAg negative patients, the proportion of HBsAg positive hepatocytes had declined significantly at end of treatment (P = 0.0009). Using HBsAg ≤ 7.5% as a limit, PPV for SVR in HBeAg negative patients was 83%.

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