J Membr Sci 1997, 135:147–159 CrossRef 21 Strite S, Morkoc H: Ga

J Membr Sci 1997, 135:147–159.CrossRef 21. Strite S, Morkoc H: GaN, AIN, and InN: a review. J Vac Sci Technol B 1992, 10:4. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions JZ carried out the experiments and drafted the manuscript. QCH participated

in the preparation and characterization of the samples. JCL participated in the final data analysis and the critical review of the manuscript. DJC and JYK conceived the study, participated in the final data analysis and the critical review of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Much research has been devoted towards gallium nitride (GaN)-based semiconductor devices, especially in terms check details of applications for light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which operate in the blue and green wavelength regions. GaN-based LEDs have attracted interest for use in full-color display panels and solid-state lighting [1] because they have advantages such as low energy consumption, long lifetimes, and relatively

small sizes. However, selleckchem in conventional planar LEDs, the light extraction efficiency is limited by several factors including the high refractive index of p-GaN (approximately 2.52), leading to a low total internal reflection (TIR) angle [2]. To enhance the output light power, various approaches, such as surface texturing [3, 4], photonic crystals [5–7], and metal oxide find more nanoparticles [8–11], have been studied. Surface plasmons (excitations on a rough metallic surface by the interaction between light and the metal nanoparticles) were suggested as a way to significantly enhance the light emission efficiency in LEDs [12]. Several methods have been suggested to science fabricate metal nanoparticles (NPs) on LEDs to improve their efficiency.

These include thermal annealing process [13–16], chemical synthesis [17], and gas etching technique. For noble metal nanoparticles on GaN surfaces, the collective oscillations of the electrons are localized surface plasmons (LSPs) [18, 19]. Under the resonance condition, this LSP effect enables the metallic nanoparticles to capture the trapped light in the p-GaN layer of the LEDs, enhancing the extracted efficiency of the light. However, the LSP resonance effect is affected by the geometry and separation of the nanoparticles. When noble metal nanoparticles are fabricated with a thermal annealing process, it is important to control the distribution and size of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the residual metal after the annealing process has a negative influence on the device performance. We report a simple method for making quasi-aligned Au nanoparticle arrays on p-GaN surfaces using superaligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs).

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