The ART criteria for inclusion were one of the following scenario

The ART criteria for inclusion were one of the following scenarios: (a) beginning any ART if ART naïve, (b) beginning PI-based ART if PI naïve, or (c) changing ART for virological failure to a regimen including at least two new drugs. Exclusion criteria have been previously described but, briefly, included pubertal development, concurrent acute illness or treatment within

180 days of entry with medications known to affect growth or body composition, for example steroids [23]. Ethics committee approval was obtained from each participating institution, as was written informed consent from the parent or legal guardian and Selleckchem Talazoparib assent from the child when appropriate. Accrual began in June 2000 and continued until March 2004. Visits were at study entry (within 72 h prior to ART initiation or change) and at 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks thereafter. At each visit, the following

evaluations were performed by trained staff: interim history and physical examination including Tanner staging; anthropometry [weight, height, circumferences (waist, hip and limb) and skinfold thicknesses (triceps, thigh and subscapular)]; single frequency tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; 50 kHz, UniQuest-SEAC BIM4 instrument; UniQuest Limited, Brisbane, Australia] of total body impedance, resistance, reactance, and Selleckchem PF 2341066 phase angle; plasma VL (HIV-1 RNA) and CD4 T-lymphocyte count; and 3-day diet record (24-hour intake by recall if 3-day record not performed). Mid-arm and thigh muscle circumferences were calculated using standard equations and used as a measure of LBM. BIA measures were used to calculate total body water (TBW; L), fat

free mass (FFM; kg), and fat mass (FM; kg) using equations previously validated in HIV-infected and uninfected children: TBW=25+0.475H2/R+0.140W; FFM=(3.474+0.459H2/R+0.064W)/(0.769−0.009A−0.016S); Inositol oxygenase and FM=W−FFM, where H is height (cm), R is resistance (ohms), W is weight (kg), A is age (years), and S is sex (1 for male and 0 for female patients) [24]. For children <8 years of age, the resistance index (H2/R) was utilized as a measure of TBW [25]. Per cent body fat was calculated from BIA as [FM (kg)/weight (kg)] × 100, and FFM adjusted for height was calculated using the FFM index (FFM:height2 ratio) [26]. Laboratories with approved performance in the NIAID Division of AIDS Virology and Immunology Quality Assurance Programs conducted HIV-1 RNA and CD4 cell measurements. A sample size of 100 was calculated to be required for the primary response variables of mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF). Based on a pilot study, 100 subjects would allow detection of a change to within 0.5% for MAMC and 9.2% for TSF with 95% confidence. One hundred subjects would provide 99% power to detect a difference in MAMC change of 2.

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