This may delay the development of protective immunity and consequ

This may delay the development of protective immunity and consequently lead to reinfection with low number of parasites. This study

was supported by grants from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de JQ1 chemical structure Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and CNPq. Acknowledgement is also due to Juliana Froeseler, Remo de Castro Russo, Cristiana Couto Garcia, Rodrigo Guabiraba Brito, Florence Mara Rosa, José Carlos dos Reis and Selma Fernandes for the technical support rendered during the experiments. “
“Investigation was made of changes in immune system parameters during the course of neonatal infection. The study population consisted of 95 full-term neonates matched for chronological age and sex, divided into three groups: suspected infection (n = 20), sepsis (n = 25), infection-free control subjects (n = 50). Serial measurements were made of the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lymphocyte subsets [CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, natural killer (NK) cells and B cells], the immunoglobulins (Ig) (IgG, IgM and IgA), C-reactive protein

(CRP), and the total blood count, before, 2 days after initiation of treatment and after stopping treatment (time periods first, second and third, respectively). IL6, TNF-α, IL1-b and CRP were higher at the first time period in the sepsis group, and IL6 and TNF-α continued to be higher in this group at the second period. IL-6 and TNF-α were precise sepsis predictors with sensitivity and specificity of 0.92, 0.98 and 0.91, 0.92, respectively. NK cells, B cells, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ NVP-AUY922 concentration were higher in the sepsis and suspected infection groups, but the ratios CD3+/CD4+, CD3+/CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ showed no difference from the controls. IgG was lower and IgM higher in the sepsis group. In the control subjects CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes increased with increasing age. It is concluded that IL-6 and TNF are good diagnostic markers of sepsis in full-term neonates. Lymphocyte subsets were affected by both the clinical condition and the chronological age. NK and B cells may be

elevated in suspected and documented sepsis, and further studies are needed to determine their clinical significance. Neonates are vulnerable click here to bacterial infections, and sepsis is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is important to identify neonatal infection as early as possible, but clinical signs are usually unreliable in neonates, while the routine diagnostic tests lack precision [1]. The immune system of the neonate, although immature, reacts to infection in several ways. It produces acute phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and reacts with changes in the white blood cell (WBC) populations.

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