We suggest that the retention of structural complexity on ski run

We suggest that the retention of structural complexity on ski runs (e.g. through the cessation of mowing during peak reptile activity periods) and/or revegetation with native plant communities will concurrently provide refuge from predators and buffer against extreme temperatures, making ski runs more hospitable to reptiles.

Based on our findings, we emphasize that effective management strategies targeting subalpine biodiversity conservation require an understanding of the drivers that determine species distributions in these landscapes.”
“1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ACY-1215 inhibitor ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale. 2. We combined experimental and

mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat-insect Selleckchem 4EGI-1 community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed

diet. 3. Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume +/- SD: 5.91 +/- 6.25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume +/- SD: 35.42 +/- 17.90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given Copanlisib diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour. 4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting.

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