Furthermore, one can derive information on coastal dynamics, e g

Furthermore, one can derive information on coastal dynamics, e.g. the extent of river plumes and algal blooms. As an example, Fig. 1 shows a MERIS image of a cyanobacteria bloom in the north-western Baltic Sea. Cyanobacteria blooms are a common phenomenon in the Baltic Sea during

late summer [4]. Some of these are toxic, and therefore have important HSP inhibitor management implications. The Baltic Sea is a brackish semi-enclosed intra-continental sea surrounded by nine European countries. It is connected through the Danish straits with the Skagerrak and the North Sea. Its catchment area is about four times as large as the Baltic Sea itself, with a population of approximately 85 million people. In Germany, Denmark and Poland approximately 60–70% of the catchment

area consist of farmland, whereas www.selleckchem.com/products/azd4547.html in Finland, Russia, Sweden and Estonia between 65% and 90% of the catchment area consist of forests, wetlands and lakes [5]. Since approximately the middle of the last century, human activities at sea and throughout the catchment area of the Baltic Sea have put increasing pressure on this fragile brackish ecosystem. In 1974, the Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area [6] was adopted by the (then) seven coastal states bordering the Baltic Sea. The Contracting Parties committed themselves to take appropriate measures to prevent and abate pollution and to protect and enhance the marine environment of the Baltic Sea Area. In 1992, a new convention [7] was signed by all the states bordering the Baltic Sea, as well as the European Community. Besides the Baltic Sea and its sea bed the new convention also covers inland waters, and aims to reduce land-based pollution in the whole catchment area of the Baltic Sea. The new convention entered

into force in 2000, and the present Contracting Parties are all bordering countries, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the European Community [7]. The European Council’s Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD) was adopted in May 1991 [8]. It regulates the collection, treatment and discharge of urban waste water and from industrial sectors in order to protect the environment triclocarban from the adverse effects of waste water discharges. The UWWTD requires the European Union’s Member States to ensure that both discharges from urban wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters are monitored. In the same year the Nitrates Directive [9] was adopted that regulates the agricultural use of nitrates in organic and chemical fertilizers. It is one of the key instruments in the protection of waters against agricultural pressure and requires the monitoring of e.g. nitrates concentrations and eutrophication. In 2000, the European Union’s member states adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) [10].

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