However, it should be mentioned that starch is not such an unnatu

However, it should be mentioned that starch is not such an unnatural food surrogate as e.g. latex beads. The author’s previous studies ( Rychert 2008) indicated that B. comatum did ingest Panobinostat wheat starch particles. Clearance rates measured in this study were slightly higher than the

B. comatum clearance rates of up to 2.8 μl cell−1 h−1 during incubation in 15°C reported by Jakobsen & Hansen (1997). In this study the preferred particles were from size classes 2.50 μm and 3.75 μm (that is, particles between 1.9 μm and 4.4 μm), which was partly consistent with the previous study ( Rychert 2008), indicating that B. comatum preferred particles of about 3.75 μm in size (3.1–4.4 μm). In both studies the preferred size of particles was lower than that described by Jakobsen & Hansen (1997), who observed that B. comatum ingested flagellates ranging from 4 to 10 μm and preferred flagellates of size about 8 μm. The author cannot give an explanation for this discrepancy. The main problem that could affect the accurate determination of clearance rates was the concentration of natural food. According to Jakobsen & Hansen (1997)B. comatum shows a Holling type II functional response ( Holling 1959). However, regardless of the type of functional response, maximal clearance rates, or rather values approaching maximal ones, could be

Dabrafenib molecular weight observed at low food concentrations. The experiments involved the addition of starch particles, but no further manipulation was undertaken to change the concentration of natural food. The functional response published by Jakobsen & Hansen (1997) demonstrated that B. comatum exhibited

saturated feeding for a food concentration equal to about 2000 food particles ml−1. In this study the combined abundance of flagellates and starch particles of preferred size (only the results for preferred particles turned out to be statistically significant) did not exceed 700 ml−1.Therefore, the concentration of food GPX6 particles was located over the initial slope of the functional response, which confirms the reliability of the results. Another possible problem could be the rather long incubation (half an hour), which could theoretically lead to the digestion of some starch particles. A similar species, B. planctonicum, digests flagellates within 20–33 minutes ( Kenter et al. 1996). However, it could be expected that the digestion of a dense starch particle takes more time than the digestion of a cryptophyte cell. Thus, digestion would lead only to a slight underestimation of the clearance rate, if any. An increase in clearance rates with temperature was also observed in the case of other ciliates e.g. Strobilidium spiralis ( Rassoulzadegan 1982). Most probably, the increase in the clearance rate with temperature is due to an acceleration of the swimming speed. Acceleration of swimming speed with temperature was previously demonstrated for ciliates by Jones & Goulder (1973).

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