genotypes (band positions: Figure 3) suggest the existence of spe

genotypes (band positions: Figure 3) suggest the existence of specific ABO blood group associated Lactobacillus spp. species or strains as described by Uchida et al. [12]. The biochemical structures of the ABO blood group glycan antigens present in both platelets

and secretory intestinal organs, including mucosal layer, were published already in 1952 [23]. Krusius et al. reported that ABO blood group antigens are present on erythrocyte glycoproteins as polyglycosyl chains [24]. Studies focusing on the expression of glycans in the human intestine have identified the presence of ABO type 1 glycans buy AZD2171 in the mucosal layer covering human orogastrointestinal tract and have shown that the fucosylated glycans, including ABO blood group glycan

antigens, are detected less abundantly towards the distal parts of the intestine [16, 17]. The ABO blood group glycans are reported to be exported to the mucus layer from goblet cells residing in the crypts of the small intestine [17]. Secretor- and Lewis-genes buy LY3023414 control the secretion of ABO blood group antigens to all bodily liquid secretions, such as tears, milk, saliva and gastrointestinal mucus, and to secreting organs, such as pancreas and liver (reviewed by Henry [25]). Already in 1960′s and 1970′s, correlations between human ABO blood group phenotype and susceptibility to develop several diseases were broadly postulated based on data from large epidemiological studies carried

out around the world. Since the development of the high throughput genomic analysis tool, research has been increasingly focused on revealing correlations between individual genotypes and disease. Indeed, highly selective associations of ABO and Lewis blood group antigens as adhesion receptors have been described for common intestinal pathogen Helicobacter pylori[11], demonstrating the existence of genotype-specific bacterial adhesion on blood group glycan structures. However, the information on such interactions in commensal bacteria and their effects on the overall composition of the intestinal microbiota have been lacking. O-methylated flavonoid Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that Finnish individuals with different ABO blood group status have differences in the repertoire and diversity of microbes of their intestinal bacterial population. In particular, the composition of the microbiota in individuals with B-antigen is differently clustered from that in non-B-individuals. We have also recently demonstrated differences in the intestinal microbiota composition associated with the host blood group secretor/non-secretor status [8]. These findings may at least partially explain the recent discoveries by Arumugam et al. [2] reporting clustering of human intestinal microbiota into three different enterotypes and by Wu et al.

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