J Am Chem Soc 2001, 123:9404.CrossRef 46. Tsai MH, Lin HW, Su HC, Ke TH, Wu CC, Fang FC, Liao YL, Wong KT, Wu CI: Highly efficient organic blue electrophosphorescent devices based on 3,6-bis(triphenylsilyl)carbazole PHA-848125 mouse as the host material. Adv Mater 2006, 18:1216.CrossRef 47. Tao YT, Wang Q, Yang CL, Wang Q, Zhang ZQ, Zou TT,
Qin JG, Ma DG: A simple carbazole/oxadiazole hybrid molecule: an excellent bipolar host for green and red phosphorescent OLEDs. Angew Chem Int Ed 2008, 47:8104.CrossRef 48. Gale PA: Synthetic indole, carbazole, biindole and indolocarbazole-based receptors: applications in anion complexation and sensing. Chem Commun 2008, 38:4525.CrossRef 49. Diaz-Garcia MA, Wright D, Casperson JD, Smith B, Glazer E, Moerner WE, Sukhomlinova LI, Twieg RJ: Photorefractive properties of poly( N -vinylcarbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications. Chem Mater 1999, 11:1784.CrossRef 50. Ikeda N, Miyasaka T: A solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell with a poly( N -vinyl-carbazole) hole transporter
mediated by an alkali iodide. Chem Commun 2005, 14:1886.CrossRef Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor 51. D’Angelo P, Barra M, Cassinese A, Maglione MG, Vacca P, Minarini C, Rubino A: Electrical transport properties characterization of PVK (poly N -vinylcarbazole) for electroluminescent devices applications. Solid State Electron 2007, 51:123.CrossRef Loperamide 52. Liu CY, Holman ZC, Kortshagen UR: Hybrid solar cells from P3HT and silicon nanocrystals. Nano Lett 2009, 9:449.CrossRef 53. Werwie M, Xu XX, Haase M, Basché T, Paulsen H: Bio serves nano: biological light-harvesting complex as energy donor for semiconductor quantum dots. Langmuir 2012, 28:5810.CrossRef 54. Fujii T, Kodaira K, Kawauchi O, Tanaka N, Yamashita H, Anpo M: Photochromic behavior in the
fluorescence spectra of 9-anthrol encapsulated in Si − Al glasses prepared by the sol–gel method. J Phys Chem B 1997, 101:10631. 55. Xu XX, Ji JW, Wang G, You XZ: Exciton coupling of surface complexes on a nanocrystal surface. Chem Phys Chem 2014. doi:10.1002/cphc.201402156 56. Antwis L, Gwilliam R, Smith A, Homewood K, Jeynes C: Characterization of a-FeSi 2 /c-Si heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications. Semicond Sci Technol 2012, 27:035016.CrossRef 57. Ritty JN, Thomas KJ, Jayasree VK, Girijavallabhan CP, Nampoori VPN, Radhakrishnan P: Study of solvent effect in laser emission from Coumarin 540 dye solution. Appl Optics 2007, 46:4786.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions JWJ and GW contributed equally to the manuscript. XZY and XXX designed the research. JWJ, GW, and XXX carried out the experiments and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.