Male Fischer rats were injected i p with saline or cocaine three

Male Fischer rats were injected i.p. with saline or cocaine three times daily at 1 h intervals in an escalating-dose paradigm for 14 days (from 3 x 15 mg/kg/injection on days 1-3 up to 3 x 30 mg/kg/injection on days 10-14). Identically treated separate groups were withdrawn from cocaine or saline for 24 h or 14 days. No significant change in KOPr agonist U-69593-stimulated [S-35]GTP gamma S was found in the seven regions studied 30

min or 14 days after chronic 14 days escalating-dose binge cocaine administration. However there was an increase in KOPr-stimulated [S-35]GTP gamma S binding in the VTA (P<0.01) of rats withdrawn for 24 h from chronic cocaine. Our results show a cocaine withdrawal induced increase of KOPr signaling in the VTA, and suggest that the KOPr may play a role in acute withdrawal from cocaine. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Previous reviews have examined the existence of HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for injecting drug users (ID Us) worldwide, but they did not quantify the scale of coverage. We undertook a systematic review to

Dinaciclib order estimate national, regional, and global coverage of HIV services in IDUs.

Methods We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, BioMed Central), internet, and grey-literature databases for data published in 2004 or later. A multistage process of data requests and verification was undertaken, involving UN agencies and national experts. National data were obtained for the extent of provision of the following core interventions for IDUs: needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), opioid substitution therapy (OST)

and other drug treatment, HIV testing and counselling, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and condom programmes. We calculated national, regional, and global coverage Nutlin 3 of NSPs, OST, and ART on the basis of available estimates of IDU population sizes.

Findings By 2009, NSPs had been implemented in 82 countries and OST in 70 countries; both interventions were available in 66 countries. Regional and national coverage varied substantially. Australasia (202 needle syringes per IDU per year) had by far the greatest rate of needle syringe distribution; Latin America and the Caribbean (0.3 needle syringes per IDU per year), Middle East and north Africa (0.5 needle syringes per IDU per year), and sub-Saharan Africa (0.1 needle syringes per IDU per year) had the lowest rates. OST coverage varied from less than or equal to one recipient per 100 IDUs in central Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa, to very high levels in western Europe (61 recipients per 100 IDUs).

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