The rituximab group also had significantly lower levels of glycat

The rituximab group also had significantly lower levels of glycated hemoglobin and required less insulin. Between 3 months and 12 months, the rate of decline in C-peptide levels in the rituximab group was significantly less than that Torin 2 in the placebo group. CD19+ B lymphocytes were depleted in patients in the rituximab group, but levels increased to 69% of baseline values at 12 months. More patients in the rituximab group than in the placebo

group had adverse events, mostly grade 1 or grade 2, after the first infusion. The reactions appeared to be minimal with subsequent infusions. There was no increase in infections or neutropenia with rituximab.


A four-dose course of rituximab partially preserved beta-cell function over a period of 1 year in patients with type 1 diabetes. The finding that B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes may open a new pathway for exploration in the treatment of patients with this condition. ( number, NCT00279305.)”
“There is an urgent need for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines that induce robust mucosal

immunity. Influenza A viruses (both H1N1 and H3N2) were engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) CD8 T-cell epitopes and evaluated following administration to the respiratory tracts of 11 pigtail macaques. Influenza virus was readily detected from respiratory tract secretions, although the infections were asymptomatic. Animals seroconverted to influenza virus and generated CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses to influenza virus proteins. SIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses bearing the mucosal homing marker beta 7 integrin were induced by vaccination of naive animals. Further, SIV-specific CD8 T-cell

responses could be boosted by recombinant influenza virus-SIV vaccination of animals with already-established SIV infection. Sequential vaccination with influenza virus-SIV recombinants of different subtypes (H1N1 followed by H3N2 or vice versa) produced only a limited boost in immunity, probably reflecting T-cell immunity to conserved internal proteins of influenza A virus. SIV challenge of macaques vaccinated with an influenza virus expressing a single SIV CD8 T cell resulted in a large anamnestic Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease recall CD8 T-cell response, but immune escape rapidly ensued and there was no impact on chronic SIV viremia. Although our results suggest that influenza virus-HIV vaccines hold promise for the induction of mucosal immunity to HIV, broader antigen cover will be needed to limit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape.”
“Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) is a double-stranded-DNA virus that is pathogenic to insects. AcNPV was shown to induce an innate immune response in mammalian immune cells and to confer protection of mice from lethal viral infection.

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