We summarize the concepts and procedures underlying tests of spatial discrimination learning, with special emphasis on holeboard-type tasks and task-specific characteristics. Holeboard-type tasks enable www.selleckchem.com/products/OSI-906.html a broad range of mnemonic and cognitive variables to be measured in parallel, including cognitive processes such as habituation processes, spatial working and reference memory, and search strategies, but also non-cognitive
variables, such as exploration, anxiety-related behavior, and stereotypies. These tasks are sensitive to a large number of naturally occurring differences (e.g. strain differences and age effects) and to the effects of non-genetic (e.g. specific brain lesions, stress, treatment with cognition impairers or cognition enhancers) and genetic experimental manipulations. In conclusion, holeboard-type tasks provide powerful tools to investigate multiple aspects of spatial orientation behavior in the same experimental setup. Cross-species selleck chemical comparison of holeboard performance shows the potential for translational studies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the seizure origin typically involves the hippocampal formation. The pilocarpine-induced
TLE provides a model to investigate the molecular and functional characterization of epileptogenesis by mimicking the human epileptic condition. Here, we employed a 2-D gel-based proteomic technique to profile proteome changes in the rat hippocampus after pilocarpine Selleck Decitabine treatment. Using MALDI MS and MS/MS, 57 differentially expressed proteins were identified, which were found either up-regulated and/or down-regulated at the two time points 12 h (acute period; Ap) and 72 h (silent period; Sp) compared with the control. These proteins can be related to underlying mechanism of pilocarpine-induced TLE, indicating cytoskeleton modification,
altered synaptic function, mitochondrial dysfunction, changed ion channel, and chaperone. Five of the identified proteins, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), synapsin-2 (SYN2), homer protein homolog 2 (HOMER2), alpha-internexin (INA), and voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) were investigated by semiquantitative RT-PCR, and SNAP25 and INA were further validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. Furthermore, association of these pilocarpine-induced proteins with biological functions using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tool showed that nucleic acid metabolism, system development, tissue and cell morphology were significantly altered. IPA of the canonical networks indicated that six membrane proteins (e.g., SNAP25, SYN2, and HOMER2) participated in three biological networks as starting proteins. Our results offer a due to identify biomarkers for the development of pharmacological therapies targeted at epilepsy.”
“Molecular imprinting involves the synthesis of polymers in the presence of a template to produce complementary binding sites with specific recognition ability.