, 2012). Amemori and Graybiel (2012) provided evidence in support of this assertion, showing that patterns of activity for ACC neurons that coded positively for conflict functionally clustered with those that coded for magnitude of punishment. Positive-Valued Outcomes. There is also a growing ISRIB purchase accumulation of findings indicating that dACC is responsive to positive outcomes. Direct neuronal recordings have consistently identified responses to rewarding events, often among units interdigitated with those
responsive to negative outcomes. This includes neurons responsive to the magnitude and probability of reward, including to hypothetical reward (for a recent review see Wallis and Kennerley, 2011). Human neuroimaging studies have also provided evidence for reward-related signals in dACC ( Knutson et al., 2005 and Kouneiher et al., 2009; meta-analysis in Bartra et al., 2013). Control Relevance
ABT-888 ic50 of Outcome Value. A simple interpretation of the findings above might be that dACC responds to the value of any event. However, the EVC model makes a more specific claim: dACC should be selectively responsive to the value of events that are relevant to the allocation of control. To engage dACC, a valenced event need not necessarily pertain to the current task, but it should pertain to some potential control-demanding task that could currently be executed. Although this prediction has not been well-tested in the literature, there is evidence that dACC is more sensitive to
outcomes when they are tied to actions, or stimuli that demand an action, than when they are only tied to nonimperative stimuli (for reviews see Rangel and Hare, 2010, Rushworth et al., 2011 and Wallis and Kennerley, 2011). Furthermore, there is evidence that dACC responses to outcomes diminish when there is a decline in demand for control. For example, fMRI studies have shown that dACC engagement falls progressively with extended practice on a unless cognitive task ( Chein and Schneider, 2005 and Chein and Schneider, 2012). Similarly, feedback-related dACC activity is observed in tasks that require subjects to search for the correct response from a set of options, but is diminished when they are allowed to repeat the correct response a number of times before outcome contingencies change (reviewed in Khamassi et al., 2010). Landmann and colleagues (2007) found the same pattern of dACC activity in a task for which participants had to progressively discover the correct sequence of button presses, also through trial and error (see also Procyk et al., 2000). They showed that dACC activity was greater during search than after discovery of the correct sequence, and that during search it correlated with the amount of information carried by feedback at each step of the current sequence (e.g.