This model focuses in technical and performance

This model focuses in technical and performance elements, considered key to analyze the efficiency of the swimmer during the competition. The main goal is to develop the athlete��s self-sufficiency capacities to make decisions, during the competition (depending on the distances), regarding the energetic resources they perceive available and consequently decide to intensify (or not) their effort and at what distance from the finish they should act. Another aspect considered relevant in the model is that both coach and athlete, once the competition is over, based on the objective information gathered, are able to discuss and adjust the following training cycle sessions in order to overcome the deficiencies identified during the performance.

The variables used in the adopted goal setting model are: ��start-time��, number of swimming cycles, ��time-turns�� which is subdivided into two moments, time-in and time-out, number of swim cycles during the second 50 meters, for example, and the finish-time. Based on previous discussions between coach and athlete the latter should be able to evaluate his/her capacity to take risks in spending an extra effort to better the overall time pre-defined for the competition in question. The implementation of Vasconcelos-Raposo (2001) proposed model does not preclude the relevance of each type of goals as they are commonly defined in term of short versus long-term goals and how they need to be articulated with each other.

Short-term goals are translated and workout throughout the training sessions according to the coach��s planning to improve the physical conditioning, technical and mental skills needed to implement the swimming strategy designed in order to attain certain final time goals. According to Weinberg et al. (1994) this type of goals tends to produce a larger effect on the athlete��s competitive performance. Nevertheless, and according to Vasconcelos-Raposo (2001), the long-term goals are essential to keep the swimmers focused on their career plan, serve as benchmarks and give direction and persistence to the athlete (Weinberg, 2009). On an operational level, the integration of these multiple objectives emerge as a method to drive the swimmers/athletes to a better understanding of the factors involved in the achieving better results as a natural consequence of the individual dedication, concentration and effort put into training sessions.

This educational context tends to enable a higher commitment and motivation to the coach��s plans. In order to achieve this, and most importantly in our perspective, goals must be constantly redefined in every moment of assessment and in accordance GSK-3 with the swimmer��s mental toughness (Loehr, 1986) and performance profile. With the evaluation system, we intend to provide a functional interpretation of events and involve the athlete and coach in the process of maximizing performance.

It is also possible to change from a low-intensity high-volume

It is also possible to change from a low-intensity high-volume figure 1 training zone to a higher intensity and lower volume zone. For example, a standing long jump is performed and 100% of the best standing long jump is achieved or sets of 8�C10 repetitions are planned, but the trainee achieves 12 repetitions per set in the first exercise of a training session. In this case rather than continuing with a training zone of 8�C10 repetitions a higher intensity zone (4�C6 repetitions) may be performed because fatigue is not indicated and it appears the trainee is ready to train at a high intensity. Flexible daily nonlinear periodization and training zone changes have been previously extensively discussed (Kraemer and Fleck 2007). To date, little research has been performed concerning flexible nonlinear periodization.

A variation of this type of periodization has been employed to maintain and increase physiological markers in collegiate Division I soccer players throughout a 16-week season (Silvestre et al. 2006). Resistance training sessions were changed to meet the players readiness to perform a specific type of training session based upon the strength and conditioning coaches subjective evaluation and heart rates during soccer practice sessions and games. The flexible nonlinear periodized program resulted in the maintenance of vertical jump ability, short sprint ability and maximal oxygen consumption throughout the season. However, significant increases in total lean tissue, leg lean tissue, trunk lean tissue, total body power (17% increase in repeat push press power) and lower body power (11% increase in repeat squat jumps followed by a short sprint) were shown pre – to post-season.

This study did not compare flexible nonlinear periodization to a different type of training. However, the results indicate the flexible nonlinear periodization did maintain or increase fitness markers throughout a soccer season. A comparison of a flexible daily nonlinear to nonlinear periodization indicates flexible nonlinear periodization offers some advantages (McNamara and Stearne 2010). Students in a college weight training class performed either a flexible nonlinear or planned (had to perform the planned training session on a specific day) nonlinear periodized program two times per week for 12 weeks.

The individuals performing the flexible nonlinear program could choose prior to a training session which of three training zones (10, 15, 20 repetitions per set) they would perform. However, at the end of the 12 weeks of training trainees in the flexible nonlinear program had to perform the same number of training sessions in each training zone as the planned nonlinear program. Pre- to post-training one repetition maximal (1 RM) chest press ability and maximal standing long jump ability Batimastat significantly increased with both training plans with no significant difference shown between plans.

, 1999); 1090 W in young endurance athletes (Chamari et al , 1995

, 1999); 1090 W in young endurance athletes (Chamari et al., 1995), 813 W in subjects with recreational activities (Vandewalle et al., 1985); 879 W in untrained students (Linossier et al., 1996)). The measured with the F-v test rPmax for upper limbs is 4.7 W?kg?1, while other studies selleck chem Enzastaurin reveal higher values (10.7 W?kg?1 (Nikolaidis, 2006); 10.7 W?kg?1 in 44 year-olds and 12.3 W?kg?1 in physical education students (Adach et al., 1999); 10.7 W?kg?1 in swimmers (Mercier et al., 1993)). The corresponding value for lower limbs (12.2 W?kg?1) is lower than previous reports; 16.4 W?kg?1 (Nikolaidis, 2006); 13.0 W?kg?1 in untrained students (Linossier et al., 1996); 13.2 W?kg?1 in physical education students, 13.7 W?kg?1 in 44 year-olds (Adach et al., 1999). The ratio upper to lower limbs Pmax (0.

40) is lower than the 0.65 (Nikolaidis, 2006), 0.78 in 44 year-olds and the 0.93 in physical education students (Adach et al., 1999). Two possible explanations for the discrepancy of our results in comparison with previous data (lower values in all the F-v characteristics) might be the age of participants and the sport. All the characteristics measured by F-v test (force, velocity and power) correspond to age-dependent sport-related fitness parameters (muscular strength, speed and anaerobic power). Potential differences between arms and legs could be explained primarily due to muscle mass and muscle fibre type distribution. Muscle strength or force generating capacity is found closely related to muscle mass (Lanza et al., 2003; Metter et al., 2004) and muscle cross-sectional area (Maugha et al.

, 1984). It is proposed that upper limbs muscle mass is 22% (Abe et al., 2003) to 25% of lower limbs (Zatsiorsky, 2002). Our data additionally suggest that other factors, e.g. sport discipline in swimming, training, individualized technique and injuries, might also influence these differences. As shown in the Figure 2, there was a case of three female swimmers who had similar force in legs (120 N, 121 N and 122 N), but their corresponding force in arms differed (84 N, 66 N and 36 N) resulting in a wide range of ratio between upper and lower limbs (0.70, 0.54 and 0.30). A drawback of our study was the inherent limitation of laboratory methods to reproduce the real movements of swimming.

In addition, arms and legs�� power output was examined separately, which did not correspond to the complex movements of the sport that involve the coordination of upper and lower limbs. On the other hand, the laboratory methods provided valid and reliable measures of anaerobic power. Moreover, the distinction between arms and legs�� power came to terms Brefeldin_A with the training practice, in which many exercises, either in pool or in the gym, focus on specific body parts. A remarkable observation from the present study was the variability of the ratios of mechanical characteristics between arms and legs in swimmers.

In contrast, male patients usually preferred

In contrast, male patients usually preferred Dovitinib CAS blue and black ligatures. Another notable finding in this study was that fire-red ligatures were chosen by both female and male patients. While the preference for red among female patients has been explained, the preference for red among male patients can be attributed to the association of the color with their favorite football teams. Detailed analysis in terms of the age of the patients revealed a high preference for colorful ligatures among adolescents. Almost none of adults (age, 21 years and higher) preferred colorful ligatures. The preference for less-noticeable elastic ligatures showed a gradual increase with increasing age: 27.9% in subjects aged less than 16 years, 49.1% in subjects aged 16�C20 years, and 76.0% in subjects aged more than 20 years.

Another noteworthy finding was that transparent ligatures were mainly preferred by all age groups. The preference percentages for transparent ligatures were 21.8% for subjects aged less than 16 years, 39.9% for subjects aged between 16�C20 years, and 66.8% for subjects aged more than 20 years. This high preference may be explained by the desire to make the fixed orthodontic appliance less visible or to camouflage the appliance. This preference can be considered to be influenced by peer pressure and the esthetic concerns associated with the use of metal brackets. CONCLUSIONS Female patients preferred red�Cpurple-colored tones, while male patients preferred blue�Cblack-colored tones. Adolescents preferred colorful elastic ligatures, while older patients preferred less-noticeable elastic ligatures.

A stock of 10�C 12 colorful and less-noticeable elastic ligatures seems adequate for patient satisfaction.
Non-carious cervical lesions are characterized by a loss of hard tissue at the cemento-enamel junction.1 These lesions are generally wedge-shaped and were previously termed idiopathic cervical erosion lesions, now referred to by Grippo2 as abfractions. A cervical lesion changes the distribution of stress within a tooth. Grippo suggests that if the lesion were left unrestored, the stress concentration caused by the cervical lesion would facilitate further deterioration of the tooth��s structure, and hypothesizes that restoration of the lesion will decrease the concentration of the stress and progression of the lesion.

3 These lesions were restored with mostly resin-based esthetic restorative materials, such as composite or resin-based glass ionomer. Many failures were seen in the cervical composite restorations,4,5 researchers report Cilengitide a greater loss of retention of these restorations among older patients.6,7 Lee states that this may occur due to either fewer teeth bearing the occlusal load in older patients, or to the protective mechanisms of natural dentition, such as cuspid guidance wearing down and allowing for greater lateral forces to be transmitted to the teeth.

The experiments were conducted in triplicate Surface contact ang

The experiments were conducted in triplicate. Surface contact angle measurements The wettability of breath figure films was measured using the sessile drop method with a standard goniometer (Rame-Hart model 250) and analyzed using the DROPimage Advanced software for contact angle determination. selleck Y-27632 A 3 ��L distilled water droplet was placed on the polymer film surface and the contact angle ���ȡ� measured. The measurement was done for a minimum of five samples of a specific polymer film, and the average value reported. Typical standard deviations are of the order of 0.3. In vitro release characteristics Ibuprofen and Salicylic acid were used as model drugs to characterize the release profiles of breath figure polymer films. The equivalent non-porous smooth films were used as controls.

In vitro release studies were performed by incubating 1.5 cm side square drug incorporated films in 15 ml of PBS medium at 37��C and stirred gently using a magnetic stirrer. At specific time intervals, 0.650 ml aliquots of the solution was withdrawn and centrifuged to remove any possible debris from the degrading polymer. Then, the aliquot was returned to the vial after measuring the absorbance to quantify drug release. The pH of the medium was monitored during the course of the experiment to verify that the solution is buffered adequately during polymer degradation. Ibuprofen and salicylic acid release were quantified through the absorbance at 221 and 296 nm, respectively. Standard calibration plots of ibuprofen and salicylic acid absorbance were constructed to correlate absorbance with drug release levels.

All experiments were conducted in triplicate. Conclusions Morphological characteristics of breath figure films of degradable PLGA and PEG/PLGA materials were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy as they were allowed to degrade in vitro. The degradation pattern shows a flattening of surface structure where the walls of the surface breath figure pores are first degraded away, followed by the gradual degradation of the underlying layers. Pinprick pores extending to the base of the film are subsequently formed which evolve into larger pore structures that eventually break up the film. The morphology of the film has a significant effect on release characteristics with breath figure morphologies in general exhibiting faster release than their nonporous analogs.

Additionally the incorporation of poly (ethylene glycol) into the films enhances release rates, which we attribute to improvement of water ingress into the film. Drug release from such thin films Dacomitinib appears to follow diffusion pathways rather than a constant release rate based on degradation of the material through dissolution of surface layers. The use of breath figure morphologies in biodegradable polymer films adds an additional level of control to drug release. Coating medical devices (stents, surgical meshes, etc.