Susceptibly test: E-test In order to confirm the susceptibility profile, the minimal
inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each strain was determined by the E-test, in accordance with the company instructions (AB Biodisk, Biomérieux, Portugal). Briefly, 2 day-old pure cultures were inoculated into Mueller-Hinton broth, supplemented with 5% (vol/vol) fetal calf serum  and the turbidity of the inoculum adjusted to McFarland Selleckchem SC79 standard 3 . Agar plates containing Mueller-Hinton supplemented with 5% (vol/vol) defibrinated horse blood (Probiológica, Belas, Portugal) were inoculated by swabbing the click here surface with the inocula. One E-test strip was applied on the surface of the plate, after drying. The plates were incubated in a CO2 incubator (HERAcell 150®; Thermo Electron Corporation, Waltham, MA, USA) set to 10% CO2 and 5% O2 at 37°C for 72 h or until visible inhibition ellipse was seen [2, 7, 23]. Strains were considered susceptible when the MIC was < 1 μg/ml, and resistant when the MIC was > 1 μg/ml . Assessment of clarithromycin resistance in gastric tissues by PCR and sequencing Total DNA was extracted from biopsy samples after digestion with Proteinase K for at least 12 hours at 55°C. Proteinase K was inactivated
by incubation at 95°C for 10 minutes. Ten microliters of the lysates were used for PCR amplification of H. pylori 23S rRNA gene as previously PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 supplier described . PCR products were sequenced using BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kits (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA) and run in an ABI Prism 3130 DNA automated sequencer (Applied Biosystems). In some H. pylori isolates, PCR and sequencing were used to characterize the 23S rRNA gene. Microscopic visualization Visualization of samples never exceeded 48 h after the experimental procedure. Smears or histological slides were observed using an epifluorescence microscope (BX51
Olympus, Hamburg, Germany) equipped with GPX6 filters adapted to the Alexa Fluor (488 and 594) signalling molecules within the probes. The filters that were not sensitive for the reporter molecules were used as negative control. Results and Discussion Specificity and sensitivity of the PNA-FISH probes In order to confirm the practical specificity and sensitivity of the probes, PNA-FISH was performed on the 33 available strains (table 1). The original genotyping of the strains was confirmed by sequencing, and 20 isolates were identified as clarithromycin resistant. Of these, 10 presented the A2143G mutation, eight the A2142G mutation and one the A2142C mutation. In one case, different genotypes in the same strain (WT and A2143G) were observed, and this strain was considered resistant. The comparison between PNA-FISH and sequencing showed a correlation of 100%. Table 1 PCR, E-test and FISH results of the detection of clarithromycin resistance in H.