Linear regression models assessed the extent to which there were

Linear regression models assessed the extent to which there were differences in the ability of comorbidity measures to predict functional capacity (Activity Status Index [ASI] scores) and quality of life (EuroQOL 5D [EQ5D] scores).\n\nResults: The CCI (R-2 = 0.245; p = 0.132) did not predict quality of life scores while the

SCQ self-report method (R-2 = 0.265; p < 0.0005) predicted the EQ5D scores. However, the CCI was almost as good as the SCQ for predicting the ASI scores at three and six months and performed slightly better in predicting ASI at eight-month follow up (R-2 = 0.370; p < 0.0005 vs. R-2 = 0.358; p < 0.0005) respectively. Only age, gender, family income and Center

for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CESD) scores showed significant association with both measures in predicting QOL and functional capacity.\n\nConclusions: Z-IETD-FMK chemical structure Although our model R-squares were fairly low, these results show that the self-report SCQ index is a good alternative method to predict QOL health outcomes when compared to a CCI medical record score. Both measures predicted physical EPZ004777 clinical trial functioning similarly. This suggests that patient self-reported comorbidity data can be used for predicting physical functional capacity and QOL and can serve as a reliable risk adjustment measure. Self-report comorbidity data may provide a cost-effective alternative method for risk adjustment in clinical research, health policy and organizational improvement analyses.\n\nTrial registration: Clinical Trials. gov NCT00416026″
“Systems biology is a quantitative approach for understanding a biological system at its global level through systematic perturbation Dorsomorphin in vitro and

integrated analysis of all its components. Simultaneous acquisition of information data sets pertaining to the system components (e.g., genome, proteome) is essential to implement this approach. There are limitations to such an approach in measuring gene expression levels and accounting for all proteins in the system. The success of genomic studies is critically dependent on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for its amplification, but PCR is very uneven in amplifying the samples, ineffective in scarce samples and unreliable in low copy number transcripts. On the other hand, lack of amplifying techniques for proteins critically limits their identification to only a small fraction of high concentration proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM cantilever sensors, and AFM force spectroscopy in particular, could address these issues directly. In this article, we reviewed and assessed their potential role in systems biology. (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2011 3 702-716 DOI: 10.1002/wsbm.

Compared with the DC group, the percentages of interleukin-17F an

Compared with the DC group, the percentages of interleukin-17F and interferon-gamma in blood and transcription factors, T-bet and RAR-related orphan receptor-gamma t, gene expressions in mesenteric lymph nodes were lower, whereas blood Foxp3 was higher in the DG group. Also, DG group had lower colon injury score. These results suggest that Gln administration suppressed Th1/Th17 and Th-associated cytokine expressions and upregulated the expression of Tregs, which may modulate the balance of Th/Treg and reduce inflammatory reactions

in DSS-induced colitis.”
“ObjectiveThe objectives of the present study were analyze specific comorbidities associated with survival and actual causes of death for patients with small renal masses, and to suggest a

simplified measure associated Z-DEVD-FMK Apoptosis inhibitor with decreased overall survival specific to this population. MethodsThe Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database (1995-2007) was queried to identify patients with localized T1a kidney cancer undergoing partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy or deferring therapy. We explored independent associations of specific comorbidities with causes of death, and developed a simplified cardiovascular index. Cox proportional hazards, and Fine and Gray competing risks regression were used. ResultsOf 7177 Medicare beneficiaries in the study population, 754 (10.5%) deferred therapy, 1849 (25.8%) underwent partial nephrectomy and 4574 (63.7%) underwent radical nephrectomy with none of the selected comorbidities identified in 3682 (51.3%) patients. Congestive heart failure, click here Selleck HDAC inhibitor chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were associated with decreased overall survival.

The cardiovascular index provided good survival risk stratification, and reclassified 1427 (41%) patients with a score 1 on the Charlson Comorbidity Index to a 0 on the cardiovascular index with minimal concession of 5-year survival. ConclusionsCongestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were associated with decreased overall survival among Medicare beneficiaries with small renal masses. The cardiovascular index could serve as a clinically useful prognostic aid when advising older patients that are borderline candidates for surgery or active surveillance.”
“Muscle contraction is normally mediated by the release of neurotransmitters from motor neurons. Here we demonstrate that protons can act as a direct transmitter from intestinal cells to stimulate muscle contraction. During the C. elegans defecation motor program the posterior body muscles contract even in the absence of neuronal inputs or vesicular neurotransmission.

The concomitant administration of the tablet with a high fat meal

The concomitant administration of the tablet with a high fat meal produced an increase on its bioavailability, mainly in C(max), with no evidence of dose-dumping.”
“A common clinical problem in IMRT, especially when treating

head and neck cases, is that the clinical target volume (CTV) stops short of the skin surface, whilst the margin for geometric uncertainties may take the planning target volume (PTV) to the skin surface or beyond. In these cases, optimization YH25448 price leads to over-dosing of the skin, unless the planner resorts to procedural tricks to avoid this, such as the use of pretend bolus or reduction of the PTV followed by adding ‘flash’ after optimization. This paper describes a method of avoiding the need for these tricks by using a multiple-isocentre CTV-based objective function. This enables plans to be produced that will give good coverage of the CTV for all the geometrical uncertainties that would have been covered by the PTV without causing the problem of over-dosing the skin. Eight isocentre shifts, equally distributed on the surface of a sphere with a radius equal to the CTV-PTV margin, are shown to be adequate

for the optimization process. The resulting fluence maps are much simpler than those resulting from PTV optimization and Selleck JNJ-26481585 will therefore be simpler to deliver. The method also permits better sparing of organs at risk such as the spinal cord.”
“In this study, we report a ISRIB research buy photo-cross-linking reaction between p-stilbazole moieties p-Stilbazoles were introduced into base paring positions of complementary

DNA strands. The [2 + 2] photocycloaddition reaction occurred rapidly upon light irradiation at 340 nm. Consequently, duplex was cross-linked and highly stabilized after 3 min irradiation. The CD spectrum of the cross-linked duplex indicated that the B-form double-helical structure was not severely distorted. NMR analysis revealed only one conformation of the duplex prior to UV irradiation, whereas two diastereomers were detected after the photo-cross-linking reaction. Before UV irradiation, p-stilbazole can adopt two different stacking modes because of rotation around the single bond between the phenyl and vinyl groups; these conformations cannot be discriminated on the NMR time scale due to rapid interconversion. However, photo-cross-linking fixed the conformation and enabled discrimination both by NMR and HPLC. The artificial base pair of p-methylstilbazolium showed almost the same reactivity as p-stilbazole, indicating that positive charge does not affect the reactivity. When a natural nucleobase was present in the complementary strand opposite p-stilbazole, the duplex was significantly destabilized relative to the duplex with paired p-stilbazole moieties and no photoreaction occurred between p-stilbazole and the nucleobase. The p-stilbazole pair has potential as a “third base pair” for nanomaterials due to its high stability and superb orthogonality.

Cox proportional hazard regression

analysis was conducted

Cox proportional hazard regression

analysis was conducted to determine clinical, functional, and occupational factors influencing selleck compound return to work within 18 months. Of 351 registered stroke patients (280 males, 71 females, mean age +/- A SD, 55.3 +/- A 7.2 years) who met inclusion criteria, 250 responded to the follow-up survey and 101 were lost to follow-up. Half (51 %) succeeded in returning to work during the 18-month follow-up after stroke onset. After adjusting for age, gender, and Barthel index at initial rehabilitation, the following factors were identified as significant predictors of a return to work: white-collar versus blue-collar occupation (hazard ratio (HR) 1.5; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.2), no aphasia (HR 3.0; 95 % CI 1.5-5.9), no attention dysfunction (HR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.0-4.0),

and walking ability (HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.3-7.1). This study indicated the importance of tailored rehabilitation to alleviate the impact of higher cortical dysfunction and to support return to work by stroke survivors.”
“N-Benzyl-2-nitro benzenesulfonamides underwent base-mediated intramolecular arylation at the benzyl sp(3) carbon to yield benzhydrylamines. The presence of electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring of the benzyl group was required heterocylces, as exemplified in the synthesis of indazole oxides YM155 manufacturer and quinazolines.”
“Maintaining a high and constant body temperature (Tb) is often viewed as a fundamental benefit of endothermy, but variation in Tb is likely the norm rather than an exception among endotherms. Thus, attempts to elucidate which factors cause Tb of endotherms to deviate away from the Tb that maximizes performance are becoming more common. One approach relies on an adaptive framework of thermoregulation, used for a

long time to predict variation in Tb of ectotherms, as a starting point to make predictions about the factors that should lead to thermoregulatory variation in endotherms. Here we test the predictions that when confronted with thermoregulatory challenges endotherms should (1) become more heterothermic, (2) lower their Tb setpoint, and/or (3) increase behavioral thermoregulation (e.g., activity levels or social thermoregulation). Acalabrutinib ic50 We exposed two species of relatively homeothermic mole-rats to two such challenges: (a) ambient temperatures (Ta) well below the thermoneutral zone and (b) increased heat loss caused by the removal of dorsal fur. In general, our results support the adaptive framework of endothermic thermoregulation with each species conforming to some of the predictions. For example, Mashona mole-rats (Fukomys darlingi) increased heterothermy as Ta decreased, highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) displayed lower Tb’s after shaving, and both species increased behavioral thermoregulation as Ta decreased.

Conclusions These findings inform the future design and evaluatio

Conclusions These findings inform the future design and evaluation of CDPs that have the potential to be adopted in numerous settings and reach athletes and coaches who can most benefit.”
“Problem The aim of this study was to find

immune-related genes expressed in cumulus cells of ovulated cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and to clear the functional CH5183284 in vivo roles during fertilization process. Method of study Ovulated COCs were collected from oviduct 16 hr after the hCG injections followed by eCG priming. The cumulus cells were used for RT-PCR or western blotting study. COCs were also used for in vitro fertilization study. Results Cramp, Trf, Lyz2, S100a8, and S100a9 were expressed in cumulus cells during ovulation process. The protein levels of CRAMP or transferrin were detected in ovulated COCs and then secreted

into hyaluronan-rich matrix. The high dose of these factors reduced the proliferative activity of E. coli; however, the lower levels of them significantly increased the rate of fertilization in in vitro via the induction of sperm capacitation. Conclusion Cumulus-secreted anti-bacterial factors act on sperm to induce sperm capacitation.”
“The axis of asymmetric cell division is controlled to determine the future position of differentiated cells during animal development. The asymmetric localization of PAR proteins in the Drosophila neuroblast and C. elegans embryo are aligned with the axes of the embryo. However, whether extracellular or intracellular HIF inhibitor signals determine the orientation of the localization of PAR proteins remains controversial. In C. elegans, the P0 zygote and germline cells (P1, P2, and P3) undergo a series of asymmetric cell divisions. Interestingly, the axis of the P0 and P1 divisions is opposite to that of the P2 and P3 divisions. PAR-2, a ring-finger protein, and PAR-1, a kinase, relocalize to selleck chemical the anterior side of the P2 and P3 germline precursors at the site of contact with endodermal precursors. Using an in vitro method, we

have found that the PAR-2 protein is distributed asymmetrically in the absence of extracellular signals, but the orientation of the protein localization in the P2 and P3 cells is determined by contact with endodermal precursor cells. Our mutant analyses suggest that mes-1 and src-1, which respectively encode a transmembrane protein and a tyrosine kinase, were not required to establish the asymmetric distribution of PAR-2, but were required to determine its orientation at the site of contact with the endodermal precursors. The PAR-2 localization during the asymmetric P2 and P3 divisions is controlled by extracellular signals via MES-1/SRC-1 signaling. Our findings suggest that Src functions as an evolutionarily conserved molecular link that coordinates extrinsic cues with PAR protein localization.

Moderate protein consumption along with a diet low in sodium migh

Moderate protein consumption along with a diet low in sodium might slow kidney disease progression. Increasing vegetable protein intake might decrease

serum phosphorus, uremic toxins, and kidney damage. Because obesity might be an important factor in the increasing prevalence of CKD, dietary strategies targeting obesity might also benefit CKD progression. In those with more advanced CKD, dietary calcium and phosphorus restriction could minimize vascular calcification. Dietary fiber and vitamin D supplementation might also be important to decrease inflammation in CKD. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.”
“Regnellidium diphyllum is considered as endangered. occurring in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil, and a few adjoining localities in Uruguay. Argentina and the State of Santa Catarina. It grows in wetlands frequently altered for agricultural activities. Herbicides based on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are widely used in these fields. The effects of 2.4-D on the germination of megaspores and initial sporophytic development of R. diphyllum were investigated. Six concentrations of 2,4-D (0.32; 0.64: 1.92; 4.80: Selleck Lapatinib 9.60 and 19.20 mg.L(-1)), and the control (0.00 mg.L(-1)), were tested in vitro, using Meyer’s medium. Cultures were maintained in a growth chamber at 24 +/- 1 degrees C. under artificial light with nominal irradiance of 110 mu mol.m(2)/s and 16 hours photoperiod. Megaspore germination was lower at 9.60 and 19.20 mg.L(-1) of 2.4-D (56 and 48%. respectively). compared with the control (68%). Herbicide concentrations of up to 1.92 mg.L(-1) did not significantly decrease the number of sporophytes formed. At 19.20 mg.L(-1) no sporophytes were formed. The lengths of the primary root, primary and secondary selleck chemical leaves were greater at concentrations of 0.32 and 0.64 mg.L(-1) of 2.4-D). Low concentrations of 2.4-D do not affect germination rates and initial development of R. diphyllum in a significant way. However, higher concentrations (9.60 and 19.20 mg.L(-1))

affect substantially the germination of the megaspores and interfere with the establishment of the species.”
“Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobcter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens and carbapenem resistance is an emerging threat. Therapeutic options for infections with these isolates include colistin. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream isolates, phenotypically characterize the resistance mechanisms and evaluate the invitro activity of colistin. Methodology: Consecutive 145 (95 P. aeruginosa and 50 Acinetobacter spp.) non-repeat isolates were included. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed per CLSI guidelines. MIC for carbapenems and colistin was performed using Etest.

Diet was assessed by means of a validated food frequency question

Diet was assessed by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. A 10-point scale integrating key Mediterranean diet characteristics was used to assess the participants’ degree of adherence to this diet. During a median follow-up period of 10.6 years (19942009), 395 confirmed incident cases and 196 deaths from CBVD were recorded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression and adjusting for potential confounders, increased adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as measured by 2-point increments in score, was inversely associated with CBVD incidence (adjusted hazard ratio 0.85, 95 confidence interval: 0.74, 0.96) and

mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.88, 95 CI: 0.73, 1.06). These inverse trends were mostly evident among women and with respect to ischemic rather than JQ1 hemorrhagic CBVD and were largely driven by consumption of vegetables, legumes, and olive oil. These data provide support for an inverse association of adherence Rigosertib to the Mediterranean diet with CBVD incidence and mortality.”
“Cisplatin and other platinum complexes are important chemotherapeutic agents and useful in the treatment for several cancers such as prostate, ovarian and testis. However, severe side effects including reproductive toxicity of cisplatin and other platinum complex cause limitations in their clinical usage. In this context, we aimed to compare the damage in testis caused by cisplatin and a novel platinum-N-heterocyclic

carbene complex (Pt-NHC). To this end, 35 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into five equal groups (n = 7 in each group). Cisplatin and Pt-NHC were intraperitoneally administered as a single dose of 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, GW-572016 concentration and the rats were then killed 10 days after this treatment.

The testicular tissues and serum samples were taken from all rats for the determination of reproductive toxicity. The results showed that cisplatin and Pt-NHC caused toxicity on the reproductive system via increased oxidative and histological damage, decreased serum testosterone levels and negatively altered sperm characteristics in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). At the same dose levels, cisplatin generally caused lower toxicity on the reproductive system compared with Pt-NHC. In conclusion, these results suggest that Pt-NHC has more toxic effects on the male reproductive system than cisplatin, and in terms of clinical usage, Pt-NHC may be unsafe compared with cisplatin.”
“The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena fixes nitrogen in specialized cells called heterocysts. The immediate product of fixation, ammonia, is known to be assimilated by addition to glutamate to make glutamine. How fixed nitrogen is transported along the filament to the 10 to 20 vegetative cells that separate heterocysts is unknown. N-fixing heterocysts accumulate an insoluble polymer containing aspartate and arginine at the cell poles.

Further, bioactive compounds like beta-carotene, which has consid

Further, bioactive compounds like beta-carotene, which has considerable double bond unsaturation and curcumin, which has considerable aromatic unsaturation, were encapsulated in these amphiphilic copolymers which successfully demonstrated their drug loading ability.”
“Objective: guidelines recommend that external cephalic version (ECV) should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation at term. However, only 50-60% Selleck GW572016 of the women receive an ECV attempt. We explored the determinants (barriers and facilitators) affecting the uptake of the guidelines among gynaecologists and midwives in the Netherlands. Design: national online

survey. Setting: the Netherlands. Participants: gynaecologists and midwives. Measurements: in the online survey, we identified the determinants that positively or negatively influenced the professionals’ adherence to three key recommendations in the guidelines: (a) counselling, (b) advising for ECV, (c) arranging an ECV. Determinants were identified in a previously performed qualitative study and were Selleckchem KPT-8602 categorised into five underlying constructs; attitude towards ECV, professional obligation, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and preconditions

for successful ECV. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess the importance of the different constructs for adherence to the guideline. LBH589 datasheet Findings: 364 professionals responded to the survey. Adherence varied: 84% counselled, 73% advised, and 82% arranged an ECV for (almost) all their clients. Although 90% of respondents considered ECV to be an effective treatment for preventing caesarean childbirths, only 30% agreed that ‘every client should undergo ECV’. Self-efficacy (perceived skills) was the most

important determinant influencing adherence. Key conclusions: self-efficacy appears to be the most significant determinant for counselling, advising and arranging an ECV. Implications for practice: to improve adherence to the guidelines on ECV we must improve self-efficacy. (c) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“The authors assessed the association between serum phospholipid fatty acids as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and breast cancer risk among women in the E3N Study (1989-2002), the French component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During an average of 7 years of follow-up, 363 cases of incident invasive breast cancer were documented among 19,934 women who, at baseline (1995-1998), had completed a diet history questionnaire and provided serum samples. Controls were randomly matched to cases by age, menopausal status at blood collection, fasting status at blood collection, date, and collection center. Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography.

Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were considered in

Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were considered in the analyses. ResultsTwo hundred and fifty-one patients were recruited for the study; the mean age was 62years, 58% were men, 72% had colostomy and 25% ileostomy; approximately 70% of patients had intestinal cancer requiring a stoma, 13% a complication and 10% an inflammatory disease. No significant differences

were observed throughout strata in the Stoma Care QoL scale index, except for geographical area, where subjects from south Italy showed a significantly lower index than subjects living in other parts of Italy (P smaller than 0.01). Colostomy and ileostomy patients reported very similar QoL. Cronbach’s alpha for the Stoma Care QoL scale was 0.90 (95% CI 0.88-0.92). Rasch analysis supported the viability of the Stoma Care QoL

scale questionnaire and showed acceptable goodness-of-fit. Three under-fitted BAY 80-6946 purchase items were observed. ConclusionThe study confirms the validity of the 20-item Stoma Care QoL scale questionnaire as a research tool for stoma patients but the number of items could be reduced.”
“Forest extraction and agricultural production leave many materials that are difficult or impossible to use as is. Hence they are left in the forests and fields as wastes, causing environmental problems and bringing no revenue. However, uses to make valuable products can be found for such wastes by studying them to understand their chemical and physical properties, including their energy content. One such material is pine needles. However, no data are available on their properties. This paper presents the chemical constituents, calorific value and anatomical and morphological ASP2215 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor this website characterization of these needles. In addition, their possible conversion into carbon/activated charcoal through various physical and chemical activations is also discussed.

The true density, specific area and calorific values of these carbons were measured. The results indicate that pine needles have potential for various value added applications, including as additives in the food industry and production of cooking briquettes and other biofuel uses. The results also indicate that physical activation is less effective compared to chemical activation.”
“This paper examines dependence on environmental resources and impacts on household welfare among the indigenous San and Mier rural communities neighbouring Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa. Data on the various household income types, including environmental income, were collected through a structured survey of 200 households. Environmental income constituted 20% of the total income. The poorest income quintile showed the highest relative dependence on environmental income (31%), though absolute environmental income increased with total income. Poverty analyses showed that poverty incidence and poverty gap would increase by 13 and 7 percentage points respectively without environmental income.

03 mg/kg;

03 mg/kg;

Z-IETD-FMK inhibitor po). In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated common marmosets, pardoprunox dose-dependently increased locomotor activity (MED = 0.03 mg/kg; po) and decreased motor disability (MED = 0.03 mg/kg; po). The effects of pardoprunox were reversed by the D-2 antagonist sulpiride. In contrast pardoprunox attenuated novelty-induced locomotor activity (MED = 0.01 mg/kg; po), (+)-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (MED = 0.3 mg/kg; po) and apomorphine-induced climbing (MED = 0.6 mg/kg; po) in rodents. Pardoprunox also induced 5-HT1A receptor-mediated behaviours, including flat body posture and tower lip retraction (MED = 0.3 mg/kg; pa) and these were reversed by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that pardoprunox possesses”
“Tissue-engineered heart valves are prone to early structural deterioration. We hypothesize that cell-scaffold interaction and mechanical deformation results in upregulation of genes related to osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation and thus changes extracellular matrix (ECM) composition in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC)-derived tissue-engineered grafts. hBMSC were expanded and seeded onto

poly-glycolic acid/poly-lactic acid scaffold for 14 days. Seeded tissue-engineered constructs (TEC) were subjected to cyclic flexure for 24 beta-catenin activation h, whereas control TEC was maintained in roller bottles for the same duration. hBMSC, TEC, and mechanically deformed TEC were subjected to gene-array and histological analysis. Expression levels of RNA and/or protein markers related to chondrogenesis (Sox9, MGP, RunX2, Col II, Col X, and Col XI) and osteogenesis (ALPL, BMP2, EDN1, RunX1, and Col I) were increased in TEC compared to unseeded hBMSC. Histological

sections of TEC stained positive for Saffranin O, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposits. The expression levels of the above gene and protein markers further increased in deformed TEC compared to static TEC. Ulixertinib chemical structure Cell-scaffold interactions and mechanical stress results in gene expression suggestive of endochondral-ossification that impact upon ECM composition and may predispose them to eventual calcification.”
“Many horse owners find round bales convenient, less labor intensive, and more affordable than other hay types, but report an inability to control horse BW gain and excessive hay waste. The objectives were to compare hay waste, hay intake, and payback of 9 round-bale feeders and a no-feeder control when used during horse feeding. Nine round-bale feeders were tested: Cinch Net, Cone, Covered Cradle, Hayhut, Hay Sleigh, Ring, Tombstone, Tombstone Saver, and Waste Less. Each feeder design was placed on the ground in a dirt paddock. Five groups of 5 horses were fed in rotation for a 4-d period with each feeder. Every fourth day, groups were rotated among paddocks and a new round bale was placed in each feeder.