Nevertheless, impaired renal function remains a frequent complica

Nevertheless, impaired renal function remains a frequent complication after LTx. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:238-43 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and 4SC-202 ic50 Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“This study evaluates the influence of information on the health benefits for acceptance of four exotic tropical fruit juices: acai, camu-camu, caja and umbu. One hundred and six evaluators participated in the tests and sensory acceptability of the four juices in relation to the overall impression was assessed using a hedonic scale of nine points. Testing was conducted in three

stages: the first with no information, the second with the information on juice flavor and the last with the information on health benefits from consumption of such juice. Between the second and third session the evaluators were asked to fill out a questionnaire in order to obtain its socioeconomic and cultural profile. It was observed by internal preference mapping that the caja and umbu juices showed higher sensory acceptance in all sessions. Camu-camu juice had the highest sensory rejection. It was found that the information on the taste of gal and caja juices positively

influenced consumer acceptance. However the influence of information on health benefits can be observed Smoothened Agonist for all evaluated juices, but despite this information the camu-camu A-1155463 juice continued in the area of sensory rejection (hedonic scores below 5). In the questionnaire it can be observed that the main factor of motivation for consumption of fruit juice is taste, and not the health benefits. It was concluded that the information of health benefits can positively influence sensory acceptance, provided there

is sensory pleasure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The role of intravenous iron in contributing to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is debatable. The present study assessed differences in fasting plasma malondialdehyde (pMDA) levels 30 minutes before and after intravenous infusion of low molecular weight iron dextran (ID) (n = 19), iron-sucrose (IS) (n = 20), and sodium ferrigluconate complex (SFGC) (n = 20) in stage 3 and 4 CKD patients. Post-infusion pMDA levels were significantly raised with respect to baseline (p 0.001). pMDA was significantly higher in the SFGC group vs. IS (3.02 0.84 mol/L vs. 2.82 0.44 mol/L, p = 0.034) or SFGC vs. ID (3.02 0.84 mol/L vs. 2.92 0.20 mol/L, p = 0.048). There was no difference between IS vs. ID (2.82 0.44 mol/L vs. 2.92 0.20 mol/L, p = 0.21). To conclude, all forms of parenteral iron, especially SFGC, significantly raise pMDA levels in the immediate post-transfusion period.”
“BACKGROUND: The effect of acute kidney injury (AKI) after lung transplantation has been described infrequently and with inconsistent results.

A 21-year-old man referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillof

A 21-year-old man referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with limited mouth opening Fosbretabulin and left preauricular swelling for more than 40 days after a traffic accident

injury. He had received mandibulomaxillary fixation in the emergency department. Computed tomography showed left mandibular condylar fracture, and digital subtraction angiography confirmed left superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular embolization of the left external carotid artery was performed, followed by excision of the traumatic pseudoaneurysm and open reduction internal fixation of the left condylar fracture. Six months after treatment, the patient can open his mouth to approximately 35 mm and showed no swelling in the left preauricular region.”
“Purpose of review

To synthesize the qualitative research literature regarding medication use to prevent cardiovascular buy PD0332991 disease, in order to explain the variation in healthcare professional (HCP) and patient behaviours, and to evaluate the implications for practice.

Recent findings

The decision to start preventive medication is affected by the patient-HCP relationship and by the design of the service. Both HCPs and patients are influenced by their understanding of the evidence regarding the value of preventive interventions; their values and preferences; and their sociopolitical context and the organizational

structure of their practice environment. The design of their service affects uptake as a consequence of its impact on clinical

communication and the extent to which the service is tailored to the needs of the local community. Continuing to take prescribed medication is affected by both contextual and practical factors. Recommendations for practice can be split into those with a clinical focus and those with a patient or community focus. More sophisticated analyses have moved beyond recommendations for patient and HCP education, and address constraints in the organization of clinical services and the social context of evidence translation.


Qualitative health research provides important insights into the experience of and context for decision making about medication prescription and adherence that can help efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease.”
“Chronic lumbar pain due to degenerative disc disease affects a large number of people, including those of fully active age. The usual self-repair system observed in nature is a spontaneous attempt at arthrodesis, which in most cases leads to pseudoarthrosis. In recent years, many possible surgical fusion techniques have been introduced; PLIF is one of these. Because of the growing interest in minimally invasive surgery and the unsatisfactory results reported in the literature (mainly due to the high incidence of morbidity and complications), a new titanium lumbar interbody cage (I-FLY) has been developed to achieve solid bone fusion by means of a stand-alone posterior device.

“Study Design Analysis of C1-C2 tomographic anatomy in a

“Study Design. Analysis of C1-C2 tomographic anatomy in a cohort of healthy children.

Objective. Compare suitability of C2 laminae and C2 pedicles for screw placement.

Summary of Background Data. Surgeons have applied several techniques for craniocervical and atlantoaxial spondylodesis

to address congenital or developmental abnormalities in children. Constructs with pedicle or transarticular screws are effective to stabilize the craniocervical junction; however, these fixation points are not suitable in all patients. FK866 Translaminar screw placement in C2 has been safely performed in children; yet, suitability of C2 laminae and C2 pedicles has not been systematically compared.

Methods. Applying chi(2) test, we compared suitability for screw placement in 46 C2 pedicles and 46 C2 laminae on digital images of axial reconstructions of cervical CT scans of 23 children who had been admitted to the same hospital due to head or neck injury. On the same scans, we estimated Selleck Acalabrutinib suitability for screw placement in 46 lateral masses of C1.

Results. Twenty-four percent of C2 pedicles and 65% of C2 laminae were deemed suitable for 3.5-mm screw placement, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001, chi(2) 15.88).

Forty-one percent of C2 pedicles and 80% of C2 laminae were deemed suitable for 3.0-mm screw placement, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001, chi(2) 14.78). Ninety-five percent of C1 lateral masses were deemed suitable for 3.5-mm screw placement.

Conclusion. C2 laminae represent a viable fixation point for C1-C2 and craniocervical arthrodesis in children. This information can be useful for preoperative planning.”
“Background: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to obesity and type Selleck Ispinesib 2 diabetes.

Objective: We examined national trends in SSB consumption among US adults by sociodemographic characteristics, body weight status, and weight-loss intention.

Design: We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate beverage consumption among adults

(aged >= 20 y) obtained from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994; n = 15979) and NHANES 1999-2004 (n 13431).

Results: From 1988-1994 to 1999-2004 on the survey day, the percentage of adult SSB drinkers increased from 58% to 63% (P < 0.001), per capita consumption of SSB increased by 46 kcal/d (P = 0.001), and daily SSB consumption among drinkers increased by 6 oz (P < 0.001). In both survey periods, per capita SSB consumption was highest among young adults (231-289 kcal/d) and lowest among the elderly (68-83 kcal/d). Young blacks had the highest percentage of SSB drinkers and the highest per capita consumption compared with white and Mexican American adults (P < 0.05).

Recurrent disease often shows tumor progression toward the endome

Recurrent disease often shows tumor progression toward the endometrium or vagina, leading to difficulties in its detection at periodic pelvic examinations.”
“Purpose: To

develop and validate a new, simple, sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simulataneous determination of matrine and secnidazole in suppositories.

Methods: The method involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C-18 column (5 mu m, 4.6 mm x 200 mm) and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-triethylamine (0.05 %) in 0.025 mol/L KH2PO4 (20: 80, v/v). The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection HDAC inhibitor was monitored at 210 and 311 nm for matrine and secnidazole, respectively. Total run time was 10 min and the column was maintained at 35 degrees C.

Results: The excipients in the suppository did not interfere with the drug peaks. Matrine was eluted at a retention time (RT) of 4.30 min while linearity for the quantification of drug was obtained in the concentration range of 10.0 – 100.0 mu g/mL (r(2) = 0.9991). Secnidazole was eluted at a retention time (tr) of 6.69 min

and linearity for the quantification of the drug was obtained in the concentration range of 10.0 – 150.0 mu g/mL (r(2) = 0.9993). Intra-and inter-day variations were < 1.0 % for both matrine and secnidazole.

Conclusion: The developed HPLC method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and proved to be suitable for the simultaneous CX-6258 determination of matrine and secnidazole in suppositories.”
“Background: The role of diagnostic catheter cerebral angiography has been recently thought MLN8237 solubility dmso to have diminished with the increasing use of noninvasive modalities such as computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. Because it is invasive and costly, we sought to elucidate the clinical utility of catheter angiography

by evaluating the indications, incidence of new and clinically meaningful findings, and its utility compared with noninvasive studies. Methods: We performed an observational cross-sectional study of consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic cerebral angiography at an urban tertiary care center. We prospectively recorded procedural indications, the findings of previously performed noninvasive studies, the actual angiogram findings, and whether these were new. We defined a new finding as any novel and clinically meaningful piece of anatomic brain vascular information. Results: Of the 200 consecutive studies over 8 months, 55% were for purely diagnostic purposes, whereas the remaining were for surveillance. The most common indications were subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral aneurysm, and arteriovenous malformation. New findings were detected in 43% of purely diagnostic angiograms and 32% of surveillance studies. We found false-negative rates of 9.

The main objective of this study is to examine the incidence of b

The main objective of this study is to examine the incidence of back pain symptoms after caudal blockade (early and late

onset) GSK923295 in children.


Patients under the age of 18 years, who received caudal blockade at the Montreal Children’s Hospital between July 2006 and December 2008 were recruited in this prospective observational study. Back pain was measured prospectively by patient self-report and parental observation during the 15-day postoperative period. Patients, or their parents, were contacted by phone on postoperative day 2 (POD2) and postoperative day 15 (POD15) to answer a seven-item symptom questionnaire.


In a sample of 135 children, the incidence of back pain symptoms was 4.7% and 1.1% on POD2 and POD15, respectively.


The results of this study provide support Screening Library manufacturer that transient self-limiting back pain after caudal blockade does occur in pediatric patients. Clinically, this is useful information

for physicians to provide to their patients. An exploration of factors that may be associated with back pain following caudal blockade in children is an interesting area of future research.”
“Objective To compare the incidence of pain relief following injection of local anesthetic (LA) into lumbar discs that caused concordant pain during provocation testing. Design Prospective collected data review from two centers and compare with published results. Outcome Measures We compared subjective reported pain relief following provocative testing using the following protocols at three separate facilities: 23 patients undergoing routine provocative discography using contrast alone

selleck chemicals llc (PD); 47 patients undergoing provocative discography performed using an equal combination of LA and contrast (CPD); 120 patients injected with LA following routine PD (ADPD); 33 patients undergoing stand-alone analgesic discography (SAAD); and 28 patients injected with LA through a catheter (FAD) placed during provocative discogaphy testing. Results Pressure-controlled PD showed a positive response rate of 34% per disc in patients with a clinical diagnosis of discogenic pain. None of the PD group without LA had pain relief and less than 10% of the CPD group reported pain relief. Forty percent of the SAAD group with positive pain reproduction reported =50% relief and 20% reporting =80% relief. Forty-six percent of the ADPD group reported =50% relief and 30% reporting =80% relief. The FAD group had a greater 80% patients reporting =50% pain relief although fewer 26% reporting more convincing =80% relief. Conclusions If the criterion standard to confirm painful annular tears is concordant pain provocation and 80% or greater pain relief following LA injected into lumbar discs, the SAAD, ADPD, and FAD protocols show statistically similar 20% to 30% prevelance.

These findings form a proof-of-concept that continuous attractor

These findings form a proof-of-concept that continuous attractor dynamics may underlie velocity integration in the dorsolateral medial entorhinal cortex. The simulations also generate pertinent upper bounds on the accuracy of integration that may be achieved

by continuous attractor dynamics in the grid cell network. We suggest experiments to test the continuous attractor model and differentiate it from models in which single cells establish their responses independently of each other.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression by translational repression or transcript degradation. A large number of miRNAs have been identified from model plant species; however, the character of conserved miRNAs is poorly understood. We studied 42 miRNA families that are conserved within the plant kingdom, using the Selleck Autophagy Compound Library miRBase database. Some conserved miRNA families were found to be preferentially expressed in dicots relative to monocots, Selleck HIF inhibitor especially miR403, miR472 and miR479. Using an improved homology search-based approach

and the conserved miRNAs as the query set, 34 conserved miRNAs and the miR482 family were identified in wheat. Forty-six wheat mRNAs were predicted as their putative target genes. Most conserved wheat miRNAs were found to retain homologous target interactions and have analogous molecular functions. The miR172 displayed a wheat-specific function and was found to have an additional target interaction with succinyl-CoA ligase. We concluded that although miRNAs are conserved, the expression and function of some have drifted during long periods

of plant evolution.”
“Polarization characteristics of the near-band-edge optical transitions in m-plane AlxGa1-xN epilayers suffering from anisotropic stresses were quantified. The epilayers were grown by both ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy methods on an m-plane freestanding GaN substrate. The light polarization direction altered from E perpendicular to c to E<parallel to>c at the AlN molar fraction, x, between 0.25 and 0.32, where E is the electric field component of the light and perpendicular to and <parallel to> represent perpendicular and parallel, respectively. To give a quantitative explanation for the result, energies and oscillator strengths of the exciton transitions involving three separate valence bands were calculated as functions selleck of strains using the Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian. The calculation predicted that the lowest energy transition (E-1) is polarized to the m-axis normal to the surface (X-3) for 0 < x < 1, meaning that E-1 emission is principally undetectable from the surface normal for any in-plane tensile strained AlxGa1-xN. The polarization direction of observable surface emission was predicted to alter from c-axis normal (X-1) to c-axis parallel (X-2) for the middle energy transition (E-2) and X-2 to X-1 for the highest energy transition (E-3) between x=0.25 and 0.32.

In addition, HP-748 induced contraction of the isolated urethra w

In addition, HP-748 induced contraction of the isolated urethra with a pEC(50) of 5.89 and an E(max) of 37%. Conclusions: These data support the potential of besipirdine as a new drug for LUT dysfunctions such as stress and mixed urinary incontinence. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The present study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of fractionated extracts of Ageratum conyzoides in a bid to isolate the active constituents of the plant with anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Helicobacter pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology procedures and isolates

subjected to pure PARP inhibitor cancer fractions of plant extracts for antimicrobial assays. Extracts of A. conyzoides was fractionated by silica gel and thin layer chromatography to MK-1775 order obtain pure fractions (17). Fractions 23 – 30 and 31 – 36 were so close and had crystals; it was assumed that they had the same active components, so they were combined and considered as one (fractions 23 – 36). The disk diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of 15 strains of H. pylori to the fractions. The minimum inhibitory concentration

(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for the most active fraction was also determined by the broth dilution method. Results were analyzed by the Fisher’s exact test. All the fractions tested demonstrated antimicrobial activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 – 30 mm. However, two of the 17 fractions [23 - 36(100%Hex-Hex/EA20%) and 69 - 83(Hex/EA80%)] demonstrated very potent activities. The lowest MIC and MBC recorded were 0.002 and 0.016 mg/ml respectively. However the MIC of the fractions ranged from 0.016 – 0.500 mg/ml for fractions 23 – 36 and 0.002 – 0.500 mg/ml for fractions 69 – 83. The MBC

of the fractions ranged from 0.063 – 0.500 mg/ml for fractions 23 – 36; 0.016 – 1.000 mg/ml for fractions 69 – 83. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in the potency of the fractions on the different bacterial strains tested, both for the MIC and MBC but comparing the activities of the most potent fractions against the different bacterial strains, they possessed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in their activities both for the MIC and MBC. It is concluded that this plant PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 mw may contain compounds with therapeutic activity, which may be found in fractions 23 – 36 (100%Hex-Hex/EA20%) and 69 – 83(Hex/EA80%).”
“Piezoceramic materials have attracted much attention for sensing, actuation, structural health monitoring, and energy harvesting applications in the past two decades due to their excellent coupling between energy in the mechanical and electrical domains. Among all piezoceramic materials, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been the most broadly studied and implemented, in industrial applications due to its high piezoelectric coupling coefficients. Piezoceramic materials are most often employed as thin films or monolithic wafers.

33 (1 06-1 67))

Conclusion: Our results indicate gend

33 (1.06-1.67)).

Conclusion: Our results indicate gender differences INCB024360 cell line in the association between plasma selenium concentration and metabolic syndrome without diabetes and may suggest a sub-clinical

deleterious effect of high selenium status in women. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Manihot esculenta (cassava) contains two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, biosynthesized from L-valine and L-isoleucine, respectively. In this study, cDNAs encoding two uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) paralogs, assigned the names UGT85K4 and UGT85K5, have been isolated from cassava. The paralogs display 96% amino acid identity, and belong to a family containing cyanogenic glucoside-specific UGTs from Sorghum bicolor and Prunus dulcis. Recombinant UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 produced in Escherichia coli were able to glucosylate acetone cyanohydrin and 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyronitrile, Selleckchem SBE-β-CD forming linamarin and lotaustralin. UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 show broad in vitro substrate specificity, as documented by their ability to glucosylate other hydroxynitriles, some flavonoids and simple alcohols. Immunolocalization studies indicated that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 co-occur with CYP79D1/D2 and CYP71E7

paralogs, which catalyze earlier steps in cyanogenic glucoside synthesis in cassava. These enzymes are all found in mesophyll and xylem parenchyma cells in the first unfolded cassava leaf. In situ PCR showed that UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are co-expressed with CYP79D1 and both CYP71E7 paralogs in the cortex, xylem and phloem parenchyma, and in specific cells in the endodermis of the petiole of the first unfolded leaf. Based on the data obtained,

UGT85K4 and UGT85K5 are concluded to be the UGTs catalyzing in planta synthesis of cyanogenic glucosides. The localization of the biosynthetic enzymes suggests that cyanogenic glucosides may play a role in both defense reactions and in fine-tuning nitrogen assimilation in cassava.”
“Despite the recent global spread of CTX-M beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs), their dissemination has been little studied in developing countries. In a 2-year prospective study, we documented the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli that were responsible for CA-UTIs in Phnom-Penh, Cambodia. Ninety-three E. coli strains were included. We observed a high prevalence of resistance to amoxicillin (88.2% of strains), cotrimoxazole (75.3%), ciprofloxacin (67.7%), gentamicin (42.5%), and third-generation cephalosporins (37.7%). A total of 34 strains carried ESBLs, all of which were CTX-M type. CTX-M carriage was associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR, we identified 4 clusters containing 9, 8, 3, and 2 strains.

Results No percent difference variables were strong predictors o

Results. No percent difference variables were strong predictors of WR status 1-year following treatment.

Conclusion. The current analyses suggest selleck kinase inhibitor that the ODI and SF-36 MCS and PCS measures are not responsive at the individual patient level when WR data are used as the external criterion using an anchor-based approach. This finding contrasts to reports of responsiveness based on distributional methods, or methods

using self-report anchors of change.”
“The objective of this study is to assess patients’ satisfaction with migraine treatment with frovatriptan (F) or zolmitriptan (Z), by preference questionnaire. 133 subjects with a history of migraine with or without aura (IHS criteria) were randomized to F 2.5 mg or Z 2.5 mg. The study had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, with

each of the two treatment periods lasting no more than 3 months. At the end of the study, patients were asked to assign preference to one of the treatments (primary endpoint). The Panobinostat mouse number of pain-free (PF) and pain-relief (PR) episodes at 2 h, and number of recurrent and sustained pain-free (SPF) episodes within 48 h were the secondary study endpoints. Seventy-seven percent of patients expressed a preference. Average score of preference was 2.9 +/- A 1.3 (F) versus 3.0 +/- A 1.3 (Z; p = NS). Rate of PF episodes at 2 h was 26% with F and 31% with Z (p = NS). PR episodes at 2 h were 57% for F and 58% for Z (p = NS). Rate of recurrence was 21 (F) and 24% (Z; p = NS). Time to recurrence within 48 h

was better for F especially between 4 and 16 h (p < 0.05). SPF episodes were 18 (F) versus 22% (Z; p = NS). Drug-related adverse events were significantly (p < 0.05) less under F (3 vs. 10). In conclusion, our study suggests that F has a similar efficacy of Z, with some advantage as regards tolerability and recurrence.”
“Study Design. Cross-sectional population-based study using administrative Selleckchem AZD9291 databases, census data, and surveys of orthopedic/neurosurgeons, family physicians (FPs) and patients in Ontario, Canada.

Objective. To determine the influence of the enthusiasm of patients, FPs, and surgeons for surgery on the regional variation in surgical rates for degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine (DDLS), such as spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Summary of Background Data. Rates of surgery and healthcare costs for treating DDLS have been increasing. Regional variation in spinal surgical rates has been observed and it is thought that the enthusiasm of patients and physicians for surgery contributes to this variation.

Methods. Using population-based administrative databases, we included all patients aged 50 years and older who underwent DDLS surgery (i.e., decompression/laminectomy, fusion) from 2002 to 2006 and calculated standardized utilization rates across counties.

Studies have indicated that the amygdala has widespread connectio

Studies have indicated that the amygdala has widespread connections with a variety of brain structures, from the prefrontal cortex to regions of the brainstem, that explain its powerful influence on other parts of the brain and behaviors mediated by those regions. Thus, many optogenetic studies have focused on harnessing the powers of this technique to elucidate

the functioning of the amygdala in relation to motivation, fear, and memory as well as to determine how the amygdala regulates activity in other structures. For example, studies using optogenetics have examined how specific circuits within amygdala nuclei regulate anxiety. Other work has provided insight into how the basolateral and central amygdala nuclei regulate memory processing underlying aversive learning. Many experiments have taken advantage of optogenetics’ ability to target either genetically distinct subpopulations of neurons or the specific projections from the amygdala to other brain regions. Findings this website from such studies have provided evidence that particular patterns of activity in basolateral amygdala (BLA) glutamatergic neurons are related to memory consolidation processes, while other work has indicated the critical nature of amygdala inputs to the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NA) in regulating behavior dependent

on those downstream structures. This review will examine the recent discoveries on amygdala functioning made through experiments using optogenetics, placing these findings in the context of the major questions in the field.”
“Biosynthesis of fumiquinazolines F and G (FQs), PC-2, and pigments by the fungus P. thymicola VKM FW-869 is directly dependent on the content of carbon substrate (mannitol) in the medium. Pigment production prevailed at all of the tested mannitol concentrations. The necessary conditions for predominant FQ biosynthesis by the fungus P. thymicola are carbon source (mannitol) limitation

and presence of NaCl in the cultivation medium. NaCl has a regulatory effect on the formation of find more secondary metabolites by enhancing FQ biosynthesis and reducing pigment formation. The maximum values of FQ biosynthesis and inhibition of pigment production are obtained at a mannitol concentration of 20 g/l and 2.5% NaCl in the medium.”
“BACKGROUND The scalp is a target for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in male organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with alopecia. These tumors can behave aggressively and are associated with high recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. Treatment guidelines are needed for SCC in the scalp of OTRs.

OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical and histologic features associated with SCC recurrence and aggressiveness in the scalp of OTRs. We review the mechanisms involved as they relate to a case. An algorithm for evaluation and treatment is introduced.