e , selection on exposed cases) and illustrate this with an examp

e., selection on exposed cases) and illustrate this with an example study.

Study Design and Setting: A case-control study was used to analyze the effect of statins on major bleedings during treatment with vitamin K antagonists. A total of 110 patients who experienced such bleedings were included 18-1,018 days after the bleeding complication and matched to 220 controls.

Results: Semaxanib inhibitor A protective association of major bleeding for exposure to statins (odds ratio [OR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.29-1.08) was

found, which did not become stronger after adjustment for confounding factors. These observations lead us to suspect survivor bias. To identify this bias, results were stratified on time between bleeding event and inclusion, and repeated for a negative control (an exposure not related to survival): blood group non-O. The ORs for exposure to statins increased gradually selleck inhibitor to 1.37 with shorter time between outcome

and inclusion, whereas ORs for the negative control remained constant, confirming our hypothesis.

Conclusion: We recommend the presented method to check for overoptimistic results, that is, survivor bias in case control studies. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene is an environmentally friendly routine for m-phenylenediamine production. The key to increasing product yield is to develop catalysts with high catalytic performance. In this work, La2O3-modified BMS-777607 manufacturer Ni/SiO2 catalysts were prepared and applied to the hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene to m-phenylenediamine. The effect of La2O3 loading on the properties of Ni/SiO2 was investigated. The reaction kinetic study was performed in ethanol over Ni/3%La2O3-SiO2 catalyst, in order to clarify the reaction mechanism of m-dinitrobenzene hydrogenation.

RESULTS: It was found that the activity of the silica supported nickel catalysts is obviously

influenced by La2O3 loading. Ni/3%La2O3 -SiO2 catalyst exhibits high activity owing to its well dispersed nickel species, with conversion of m-dinitrobenzene and yield of m-phenylenediamine up to 97.1% and 94%, respectively. The results also show that Ni/3%La2O3 -SiO2 catalyst can be reused at least six times without significant loss of activity.

CONCLUSION: La2O3 shows strong promotion of the effect of Ni/SiO2 catalyst for liquid-phase hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene. La2O3 loading can affect the properties of Ni/SiO2 catalyst. Based on the study of m-dinitrobenzene hydrogenation kinetics over Ni/3%La2O3-SiO2 catalyst, a possible reaction mechanism is proposed. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To determine whether BNP or NT-proBNP levels more strongly indicate or predict cardiac diseases in patients with chronic heart failure, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and acute cerebral infarction complicated with heart failure.

Documented information on ART ototoxicity is mainly of case repor

Documented information on ART ototoxicity is mainly of case reports, and where bigger ATM Kinase Inhibitor research buy samples are described; the studies are based on retrospective cross sectional data review with many of these studies lacking the use of sensitive audiological monitoring tools. Moreover, reports reviewed have mainly been international reports, with only one from Africa. Evidence on ototoxicity related to ART is sparse, however literature reviewed and studies presented highlight the need for intensified research into this area, particularly in developing countries where the volume of evidence is even less; despite these countries being the hardest hit by the pandemic with exposure to ART being an increasing phenomenon.”

With the increase of pediatric cancer survival rates, late effects and quality of life (QoL) have received more attention. Disturbed sleep in pediatric cancer is a common clinical observation, but research on this subject is sparse. In general, sleep problems

can lead to significant morbidity and are associated with impaired QoL. Information on sleep is essential to develop interventions to improve QoL.

Methods: Children (2-18 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were eligible for this multi-center study. The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 (TM) Acute Cancer Version (PedsQL) were used to assess sleep and QoL halfway through maintenance therapy. Sleep and QoL were measured during and after dexamethasone treatment (on-dex and off-dex).

Results: Seventeen children participated (age 6.7 +/- 3.3 years, 44% boys). Children with ALL had BAY 80-6946 chemical structure more sleep problems and a lower QoL compared to the norm. There were no differences on-dex and off-dex. Pain (r = -0.6; p = 0.029) and worry (r = -0.5; p = 0.034) showed a moderate negative association with sleep. Reduced overall QoL was moderately associated with impaired overall sleep (r = -0.6; p = 0.014) and more problems with sleep anxiety (r = -0.8; p = 0.003), sleep onset

delay (r = -0.5; p = 0.037), daytime sleepiness (r = -0.5; p = 0.044) and night wakenings (r = -0.6; p = 0.017).

Conclusion: QoL is impaired in children during cancer treatment. The results EX527 of this study suggest that impaired sleep may be a contributing determinant. Consequently, enhanced counseling and treatment of sleep problems might improve QoL. It is important to conduct more extensive studies to confirm these findings and provide more detailed information on the relationship between sleep and QoL, and on factors affecting sleep in pediatric ALL and in children with cancer in general.”
“Oxidized sodium alginate (OSA) was prepared through an oxidation reaction of sodium alginate in the presence of sodium periodate. In situ crosslinked hydrogels were obtained through the crosslinking reaction between the active aldehyde of OSA and the amino of the carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS).

The chelating properties of the new polymer toward the divalent m

The chelating properties of the new polymer toward the divalent metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and Pb2+)

in aqueous solutions was studied by a batch equilibration technique as a function of contact time, pH, mass of resin, and concentration of metal ions. The amount of metal-ion uptake of the polymer was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results of the study revealed that the resin exhibited higher capacities and a more pronounced adsorption toward Pb2+ and that the metal-ion uptake follows the order: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+. The adsorption and binding capacity of the resin toward the various metal ions investigated are discussed. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) comprises a series of complicated clinical manifestations. We hereby report one unique case of VHL with a selleck compound natural

history that mimics acute myelitis. MRI and biopsy in this patient showed multiple solid hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system and kidney. selleck This study further confirmed that VHL is of highly clinical, imaging, and pathological heterogeneity. Diagnosis for VHL should be based on combination of clinical, radiological, pathological, and genetic data.”
“Reconstructive surgery of defects for any disease or injury including bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition. Related to bisphosphonates, it is the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the osteoclast that inhibits, and in some cases stops, bone renewal/remodeling altogether. Therefore, reconstruction begins with a debridement of resection considering this mechanism. For intravenous bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis defects of

MK-8776 the mandible, most resections are immediately reconstructed with a rigid titanium plate provided that secondary infection is controlled, there is sufficient soft tissue present, and a resection margin containing variable bone marrow can be achieved. For some similar defects with significant secondary infection, a delayed rigid plate placement after the recipient site has healed and is infection free represents another option. In those defects in which there is a significant soft tissue loss, flap reconstruciton may also be necessary. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap is the most predictable and most commonly used flap, followed by the trapezius myocutaneous flap, and stemocleidomastoid flap. Bone graft reconstructions are rarely needed, and are often not indicated due to minimal benefit for the patient, anesthetic risks, or active cancer at metastatic sites.

The quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts used for the modificati

The quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts used for the modification of bentonite were dimethyldioctadecyl ammonium (DMDA) chloride (Cl), tetrakisdecyl ammonium (TKA) bromide (Br), and tributylhexadecyl phosphonium (TBHP) Br. The effects of the physical properties and structure of the organoclay on the clay dispersion were studied at different clay contents (2 and 5 wt %)

and at a compatibilizer/organoclay ratio of 2.5. The extent of organoclay dispersion was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mechanical testing, and rheological analysis. XRD analysis showed that the nanocomposite with the organoclay DMDA contained intercalated silicate layers, ERK inhibitor as also verified by TEM. The TEM analysis of the nanocomposites with TBHP exhibited intercalated/partially

exfoliated clay dispersion. TKA, with a crowded alkyl environment, sheltered and hindered the intercalation of polymer chains through the silicate layers. In comparison to pure LLDPE, nanocomposites with a 33-41% higher Young’s modulus, 169% higher tensile strength, and 75-144% higher elongation at break were produced with DMDA and TBHP, respectively (at 5 wt % organoclay). The storage modulus increased by 807-1393%, and the dynamic viscosity increased by 196339% with respect to pure LLDPE at low frequencies for the samples with DMDA PXD101 mw and TBHP (at 5 wt % organoclay). (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Sleep disturbance is an important feature of Parkinson’s disease

(PD) that deserves clinical attention. Various disorders need to be considered and treatment should be customized to the patient’s specific symptoms and lifestyle. Evaluation of a PD patient complaining of difficulty sleeping begins with a detailed history from the patient and bed partner about the specific problem the patient is experiencing. It is important to inquire about difficulties with sleep onset, frequent awakenings, increased movements during sleep, acting out dreams, uncomfortable motor symptoms, disordered breathing, and nocturia. Current medications should be reviewed to determine whether the recent addition of a drug or a change in dose may be contributing to sleep difficulties, and one should ask about daytime sleepiness, frequent daytime naps, and sleep Autophagy Compound Library datasheet hygiene in the evening that can contribute to problems sleeping at night. The goal of therapy is to restore quality nighttime sleep without excessive daytime sedation and to improve the patient’s daily mental and physical function and overall quality of life.”
“Purpose of review

Coagulopathy and bleeding after severe injury is a common problem. Whenever caring for critically ill patients, clinicians must anticipate, recognize and manage the coagulopathy of trauma. When left untreated, cardiovascular shock and multiorgan system failure ensue.

“The main objective of this contribution is to point out t

“The main objective of this contribution is to point out the potentialities of cerium doped LuAG single crystal as pixels and fibers. We first show that after optimization of growth conditions using Bridgman technology, this composition exhibits very good performances for scintillating applications (up to 26 000 photons/MeV). When grown with the micropulling down technology, fiber shapes can be obtained while the intrinsic performances are preserved. For the future high energy experiments

requiring new detector concepts capable of delivering much richer informations about x- or gamma-ray energy deposition, unusual fiber shaped dense materials need to be developed. We demonstrate in this frame that cerium doped LuAG is a serious candidate for the next generation of ionizing NSC23766 purchase radiation calorimeters. (C) 2010 American Institute

check details of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3452358]“
“Background: Technological advances during the last few decades have improved the success rate of surgery for the treatment of malignant spinal tumors. Nonetheless, many patients present with widespread tumor burden and minimal life expectancy, which excludes them from being surgical candidates. For these patients, palliative management is recommended.

Methods: The authors reviewed prospective and retrospective clinical studies as well as case series regarding palliative treatments for primary and metastatic spinal tumors.

Results: Analgesics, ranging from nonopioids to strong opioids, may be used depending on the degree of pain. Steroids may also improve pain relief, although they are associated

with a number of adverse events. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are conservative treatments with high rates of pain relief and vertebral body stabilization. Radiotherapy is the gold standard for palliative management, with approximately 60% of patients experiencing a decrease in tumor-related spinal Selleckchem LY411575 pain and up to 35% experiencing complete relief. Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers high doses of radiation to patients to provide pain relief while also sparing delicate anatomical structures.

Conclusion: Palliative management of spinal tumors is diverse. Analgesics may be used in conjunction with radiotherapy and/or kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty to offer pain relief.”

The issue of medication safety is highly significant when anti-cancer therapy is used due to the high potential for harm from these agents and the disease context in which they are being used. This article reports on the development of multidisciplinary consensus guidelines for the safe prescribing, dispensing and administration of cancer chemotherapy undertaken by a working group of the Clinical Oncological Society of Australia (COSA).

Patients ranged in age from 19 months to 72 years and all but two

Patients ranged in age from 19 months to 72 years and all but two patients survived. Physicians in non-endemic areas should be aware of the signs and symptoms of this disease, as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment,

especially as travel to HAT endemic areas increases. We recommend extension of the current surveillance systems such as TropNetEurop and maintaining and promotion of existing reference centers of diagnostics and expertise. Important contact information is also included, should physicians require assistance in diagnosing or treating HAT. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“SLC2A9 is a novel identified urate transporter influencing uric acid metabolism. It has been suggested that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC2A9 may affect the serum UA levels. The present study was designed to investigate rs6855911 polymorphism YM155 purchase in intron 7 of SLC2A9 in a total of learn more 372 Chinese male subjects. We examined 166 gout patients, as well as 206 healthy male volunteers in this study. DNA was purified from peripheral blood, and the rs6855911 polymorphism was evaluated using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and direct sequencing. Demographic

and clinical data obtained from the patients and controls among the genotype groups were analyzed. A/A and A/G genotypes were unambiguously distinguished with HRM technology. The occurrence of the homozygous type (GIG) was completely absent among the study population. The prevalence of the A/A and A/G genotype was 96.0% and 4.0%, respectively. Genotyping based on HRM was fully concordant with sequencing. The G allele frequency was significantly higher in the low-uric-acid group than in the high-uric-acid group. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies were not significantly different between gout and control subjects (p=0.04). However,

serum uric acid levels in the A/G genotype subjects were significantly lower than those with the A/A genotypes (p<0.01). Rapid and accurate genotyping analysis of SLC2A9 can be done with HRM. The polymorphism rs6855911 in SLC2A9 may be a genetic marker to assess risk of hyperuricemia www.selleckchem.com/products/gdc-0068.html among Chinese male Han population.”
“Cross-linked hydroxy terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based polyurethaneurea (PU), HTPB-divinyl benzene (DVB)-PU, was synthesized by a three-step polymerization process. It was first used as membrane material to separate p-/o-xylene mixtures by pervaporation (PV). The effects of the content of cross-linker DVB, feed concentration, and operating temperature on the PV performance of HTPB-DVB-PU membranes were investigated. The membranes demonstrated p-xylene permselectivity as well as high total flux. The introduction of DVB significantly enhanced the temperature resistance ability of the HTPB-DVB-PU membranes. With increasing DVB content, the separation factor increased while the total flux decreased a little.

In addition, POSS-NH(2)/BT hybrids also show good thermal and the

In addition, POSS-NH(2)/BT hybrids also show good thermal and thermo-oxidative stability compared with BT resin. All these differences in macroproperties are attributed to the difference in chemical structure between POSS-NH(2)/BT hybrids and BT resin. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 360367, 2011″
“Membrane technology is broadly applied in the medical field. The ability of membranous systems to effectively control the movement of chemical entities is pivotal to their signi. cant potential for use in both drug delivery and surgical/medical applications. An alteration in the physical properties of a polymer in response to a change

in environmental conditions is a behavior that can be utilized to prepare ‘smart’ drug delivery systems. Stimuli-responsive or ‘smart’ polymers are polymers that upon exposure to small changes in the environment undergo rapid changes in their microstructure. A stimulus, such as a change learn more in pH or temperature, thus serves as a trigger for the release of drug from membranous drug delivery systems that are formulated from stimuli-responsive polymers. This article has sought to review the use of stimuli-responsive polymers that have found application in membranous drug delivery systems.

Polymers responsive to pH and temperature have been extensively addressed in this review since they are considered the most important stimuli that may be exploited for use in drug delivery, and biomedical applications such as in tissue engineering. In addition, dual-responsive selleck inhibitor and glucose-responsive membranes have been also addressed as membranes responsive to diverse stimuli.”
“Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the US, and an important public health concern both in the US

and throughout the world. Given high incidence rates among young adults and the large number of deaths, skin cancer has the potential to result in significant years of potential life lost (YPLL) and lost productivity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the published literature on the YPLL and the value of productivity loss from morbidity and premature mortality resulting from melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC).

Employing pre-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion p38 MAPK activity criteria, systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Econlit. We selected studies that measured the societal burden of melanoma and NMSC through estimating either the YPLL and/or the indirect costs.

We identified 16 relevant studies meeting our criteria, six were from the US and ten were from other industrialized countries; ten of the studies reported results on YPLL, eight on mortality costs and five on morbidity costs. Some studies reported results in more than one category.

From each eligible article and report, we extracted detailed information on the study population/country, study design, data analysis methods and study results.

Objective: To investigate whether the inflammatory response to A

Objective: To investigate whether the inflammatory response to A beta has (1) any effect BIBF-1120 on the status of immune activation in the brain parenchyma and (2) leads to clearance of A beta from brain parenchyma. Methods: We studied immune activation and A beta load by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis in brain parenchyma adjacent to affected vessels in 11 ABRA patients and 10 matched CAA controls. Results: ABRA patients showed

significantly increased immune activation and decreased A beta loads in the brain parenchyma adjacent to affected vessels. Conclusion: Our results are in line with the hypothesis of ABRA being the result of an excessive immune response to A beta and show that this can lead to enhanced clearance of A beta from the brain parenchyma

by immune-mediated mechanisms. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Many studies have reported motor impairments in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the brain mechanism underlying motor impairment in ASD remains unclear. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested HDAC inhibitor that underconnectivity between the cerebellum and other brain regions contributes to the features of ASD. In this study, we investigated the microstructural integrity of the cerebellar pathways, including the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles, of children with and without ASD by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to determine whether the microstructural integrity of the cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with ASD. Thirteen children with ASD and 11 age-, gender-, handedness-, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), for the cerebellar pathways were calculated. The Movement Assessment Battery for

Children 2 (M-ABC 2) was used for assessing motor functions. There were no significant Selleckchem Tubastatin A differences between the two groups in RD. However, compared to the TD subjects, patients with ASD had a significantly lower FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle and lower AD in the left superior cerebellar peduncle, in addition to a significantly lower score in ball skills and the total test score of M-ABC 2. There was a significant positive correlation between the total test score of M-ABC 2 and FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle in the ASD group. These findings suggest that the altered microstructural integrity of the superior cerebellar peduncle may be related to motor impairment in ASD.”
“Cutaneous pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia is a benign proliferation that can be associated with many nontumoral and tumoral conditions. In the literature, squamous proliferations of different types have been associated with several types of adnexal adenomas. However, we found no reported case of association of hidradenoma papilliferum with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of MAT1A

Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of MAT1A variants with homocysteine, DNA damage, and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Design: Eight variants of MAT1A were examined for associations with hypertension, stroke, CVD, homocysteine, and DNA damage in 1006 participants of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Two variants were replicated

in 1147 participants of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders Study.

Results: Two variants and haplotypes were strongly associated with hypertension and stroke, independent of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants. Homozygotes Selleckchem SN-38 of the MAT1A d18777A (rs3851059) allele had a significantly greater likelihood of stroke (odds ratio: 4.30; 95% CI: 1.34, 12.19; P = 0.006), whereas 3U1510A (rs7087728) homozygotes had a lower likelihood of hypertension (odds ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.95; AZD1390 clinical trial P = 0.022) and stroke (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.82; P = 0.015). A similar trend of association was observed in a second elderly population. Furthermore, strong interactions between MAT1A genotypes and vitamin B-6 status were found. Carriers of the nonrisk allele 3U1510A had a lower 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentration a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage-when plasma vitamin B-6 was

high, whereas homozygotes for the risk-allele 3U1510G had higher 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentrations,

regardless of vitamin B-6 status.

Conclusions: MAT1A variants were strongly associated with hypertension and stroke. Improving folate and vitamin B-6 status might decrease the CVD risk of only a subset of the population, depending on genotype. These findings suggest that impairments in methylation activity, RNA Synthesis inhibitor independent of homocysteine, have an effect on CVD risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1377-86.”
“Study Design. Correlation between variables measured with previously validated instruments.

Objective. To explore the association between catastrophizing and disability in patients treated for subacute or chronic low back pain (LBP) within routine clinical practice in Spain.

Summary of Background Data. The influence of psychological variables on LBP-related disability in Southern Europe is different to the one in the Anglo-Saxon and Northern European cultural environments. In Spanish LBP patients, the influence of fear avoidance beliefs on disability is negligible, and catastrophizing does not mediate the improvement of disability caused by active education. The association between catastrophizing and disability is unknown.

Methods. Thirty-three clinicians working for the Spanish National Health Service in 6 primary care and 8 specialty centers, recruited 1461 patients seeking care for subacute and chronic LBP. Patients were assessed only once.

In this study, the expression patterns of three isoforms of galac

In this study, the expression patterns of three isoforms of galactinol synthase (CaGolS1-2-3) from Coffea arabica were evaluated in response to water deficit, salinity and heat stress. All CaGolS isoforms were highly expressed in leaves while little to no expression were detected in flower buds, flowers, plagiotropic shoots, roots. endosperm and pericarp of mature fruits. Transcriptional analysis indicated

that the genes were differentially regulated under water deficit, high salt and heat stress. CaGolS1 isoform is constitutively expressed in plants under normal growth conditions and was the most responsive during all stress treatments. CaGolS2 is unique among the three isoforms in that it was detected only under severe water deficit and salt stresses. CaGolS3 was primarily expressed under moderate and severe drought. This isoform BVD-523 molecular weight was induced only at the third day of heat and under high salt stress. The increase in GolS transcription was not reflected into the amount of galactinol in coffee leaves, as specific glycosyltransferases most S63845 Apoptosis inhibitor likely used galactinol to transfer galactose units to higher homologous oligosaccharides, as suggested by the increase of raffinose and stachyose during

the stresses. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“We report the Hall constant R(H), drift mobility mu(D), and Hall mobility mu(H) measured at 4 K in thin gold films deposited on mica substrates, where the dominant electron scattering mechanism is electron-surface scattering. R(H) increases with increasing film thickness and decreases with increasing magnetic field. For high magnetic fields B >= 6 T, R(H) turns out to be approximately independent of magnetic field, and its value is close to that of the free electron model. We use the high magnetic field values of R(H) to determine film thickness. This nondestructive method leads to a determination of film thickness that agrees to within 10% with the thickness measured by other techniques. The theoretical predictions, based upon the theory of Fuchs-Sondheimer and the theory of

Calecki, are at variance with experimental observations. (C) 2010 American Institute selleck chemicals of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3525704]“
“Shiga toxins comprise a family of structurally and functionally related protein toxins expressed by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and multiple serotypes of Escherichia coli. While the capacity of Shiga toxins to inhibit protein synthesis by catalytic inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes has been well described, it is also apparent that Shiga toxins trigger apoptosis in many cell types. This review presents evidence that Shiga toxins induce apoptosis of epithelial, endothelial, leukocytic, lymphoid and neuronal cells. Apoptotic signaling pathways activated by the toxins are reviewed with an emphasis on signaling mechanisms that are shared among different cell types.