Another proposed possibility is the measurement of the “intent to

Another proposed possibility is the measurement of the “intent to attend” the next study visit and to use this as a covariate to decrease the attrition bias.94 In addition, identifying patients who are not likely to continue in the study or who find participation burdensome prior to their dropping

out can help research personnel to proactively address barriers to trial completion. Finally, allowing for in-person, two-way video or telephone assessments in the patient’s home should also be considered to reduce Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the amount of missing data. Trial Implementation and conduct One of the most Enzastaurin supplier neglected areas of clinical trials is trial management and oversight. As signal detection has become increasingly difficult and sample sizes have increased, the conduct and quality control of large-scale RCTs Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has become increasingly complex and difficult.65 Subsequently, many companies have outsourced this important aspect of trial implementation and performance. As a result, there is the danger of a loss of control and diffusion or narrowing of responsibility, in that clinical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical research organizations are mostly in charge of assuring that increasingly tight time lines are kept and quota are met. The enormous time pressures can lead to a problematic disconnect between the desired quantity

and the desired quality of enrolled patients and assessments. Moreover, increasing regulatory requirements can also lead to an overburdening of sites and investigators who are not part of professional clinical trials sites and who might drop out of multisite RCTs, thereby Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical narrowing the settings in which patients are studied. Furthermore, the focus on assuring adherence to formal requirements, which has appropriately attracted scrutiny and attention, should not distract from assessing the quality of the trial conduct that is not equivalent to following checklists and increasingly complex documentation. To Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical overcome some of these problems, recent concern has focused on finding ways to encourage trial management organizations to broaden their responsibility beyond considerations

of documentation and fulfilling quota. GSK-3 Rather, methods need to be considered that provide incentives to these organizations to assure adherence to appropriate standards of patient selection and high quality assessments, follow-up, protocol adherence, and retention. However, a high placebo response or lack of separation of the investigational drug or standard comparator from placebo cannot automatically or solely be used as a quality indicator. Moreover, quality adherence should also be measurable and achievable during the conduct of the trial and not only after its conclusion. Therefore, the field needs to develop standards against which sites and clinical trial management organizations can be assessed and which can provide clear guidance to all parties involved in the conduct of the trial.


Naming interfered by unrelated words strongly engaged these areas, while they were suppressed for target-related, especially facilitatory, distractors due to lower demands. Moreover, the caudal part of ACC has been associated with controlled priming and controlled attentional processes, while the rostral part of ACC has been related to automatic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical priming and might reflect an automatic attentional system and monitors the automatic lexical access

to semantic relations (Rossell et al. 2001). The joint suppression for facilitatory distractors in rostral ACC reveals low demands on automated processing. Priming of controlled processing in caudal ACC can be found for all three distractor types (see Fig. 6 for parameter estimates; Table 5). Medial temporal/parahippocampal gyrus has shown to be implicated in memory retrieval and encoding (Cabeza and Nyberg 2000). This brain region Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical formerly has been found for priming (Rossell et al. 2003; Raposo et al. 2006). Thus, repetition suppression of this area for the facilitatory distractors may be attributed to the beneficial impact of relatedness on memory processing. We may speculate that the retrieval from memory is easier for words that have been preactivated by their connection

to neighboring words. Alternatively, if the learning of new associations (Horner and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Henson 2008) between distractor and target picture is considered, it may be less demanding to store two semantically or phonologically related words than to store two arbitrary word combinations. For both distractor types with feature overlap, there Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were commonly suppressed brain areas related to visual and conceptual processing (bilateral occipitotemporal regions), phonetic/articulatory processing (mainly left precentral gyrus, BA 4, and parietal operculum/insula), and to a minor extent monitoring (left ACC). Cognitively

speaking, an overlap of features contains a facilitatory, but also a concurring, potential. The phonological distractor is not Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical especially competitive as it does not meet the semantic properties of the target, while it primes its phonetic features, Batimastat phonemes, and syllable slots. Thus, despite partly or full activation of the concurrent word form, further conflict processing is not especially important. The overlap of semantic features in the categorical distractor also primes the target. But at the same time, this distractor type covers a large portion of target semantics and selleck chem Tipifarnib thereby, its motor preparation may occur effortless and unnoticed, until its false selection is meantime detected by monitoring processes and inhibited by cognitive control processes (see also below for a discussion on Finkbeiner and Caramazza 2006). The facilitatory aspects of feature overlap become evident by the primed visual, conceptual, and motor brain regions.

However, well before we reach a state of universal awareness of o

However, well before we reach a state of universal awareness of our informative genotypes, our patients will no longer accept avoidable side effects, and will demand basic pharmacogenomic testing prior to taking antidepressant or antipsychotic medications.
Since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, interest in “personalized medicine” and the quantity

of journal literature and Web resources related to this topic has been burgeoning. selleck chem CHIR99021 Former US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary, Michael O. Leavitt, made personalized medicine one of his priorities, and the US President, Barack Obama, was the author of the Genomics and Personalized Medicine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Acts of 2006 and 2007. The attention and energies of these two highlevel officials, as well as many others, have contributed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to the continued US support for this research agenda. Kathleen Sebelius succeeded Michael O. Levitt as HHS Secretary on April 28, 2009. On May 5, 2009, a coalition representing more than a hundred genetic testing laboratories, patient advocates, investors, and health policy

researchers sent the Secretary a letter describing their issues and concerns regarding personalized medicine. As stated on the HHS personalized health care Web site, “Virtually every the agency in the US Department Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of Health and Human Services participates actively in initiatives that are working toward the long-term goals of personalized health Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical care. The integration of these efforts will act as a powerful force to achieve personalized patient care.” The HI IS issued two reports on US efforts related to personalized medicine. The first report (2007) “included summaries of federal efforts in the areas of expanding the science base for personalized health care; supporting health information

technology; regulatory responsibilities; implementing personalized medical products and services in clinical practice; and ethical, legal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and social issues.” The second report (2008) “seeks to bring into focus a sampling of activities that are now underway in different parts of the private and academic health care sectors toward integrating personalized health care into clinical practice.” HHS Batimastat Personalized Health Care Initiative, US Department of Health and Human Services [] HHS Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health & Society (SACGHS) [] “Personalized Health Care: Opportunities, Pathways, Resources,” US Department of Health and Human Services, September 2007 [] “Personalized Health Care Pioneers, Partnerships, Progress,” US Department of Health and Human Services, November 2008 [

Sweetened EtOH was prepared by combining 95% ethanol and sucrose

Sweetened EtOH was prepared by combining 95% ethanol and sucrose in tap water to obtain either a 2% sucrose–15% EtOH (w/v; Experiment 1) or a 2% sucrose–20%

EtOH (w/v; Experiments 2 and 3). Alcohol exposure in the home cage Rats were initially acclimated to the taste and pharmacological effects of EtOH in the home cage. This procedure was the same for Experiments 2 and 3, but differed for Experiment 1. In Experiment 1, rats (n = 25) first received a 24-h session in which only 15% EtOH was available in the home cage, followed by a 24-h session in which only water was available. Subsequently, they received 15% EtOH for 1 h/day (during the light phase) and water Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for 23 h/day for 18 consecutive days. EtOH was restricted to 1 h to encourage consumption within a time frame that corresponded to the length of subsequent behavioral sessions. Experiment 2 (n = 32) and Experiment 3 (n = 28) utilized an intermittent, 24-h access, two-bottle

choice procedure that produces high EtOH intakes in outbred rats (Wise 1973; Simms et al. 2008; Sparks et al. 2013). On Monday, Wednesday Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and Friday rats received concurrent access to one bottle containing water and a second bottle containing 20% EtOH for 24-h sessions across Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 5–6 weeks. On Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday only water was available. In all experiments, the left/right positions of water and EtOH bottles were alternated daily to mitigate the impact of side preferences. Rat weights and volume of ethanol consumed was obtained for each session and used to calculate EtOH intake in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical terms of g/kg (grams of EtOH consumed divided by rat weight in kilograms). Spillage was accounted for by subtracting the volume of fluid lost from bottles on an empty cage. Rats that consumed less than 1.0 g/kg by session 7 were given sweetened EtOH for 2–3 sessions to entice drinking.

Rats with the highest EtOH intakes averaged across the last 2 days (Table 1) were selected for behavioral testing. Table 1 Ethanol intake averaged over the last two sessions (mean ± SEM) of exposure in the home cage or Pavlovian selleck compound discrimination training. Pavlovian discrimination Dacomitinib Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical training Pavlovian discrimination training (PDT) was conducted in daily, 60-min sessions, Monday–Friday. At 5 min after placement into the operant conditioning chamber the house light was illuminated to indicate the start of the session. In each session, rats received 16 presentations each of two different 10-sec auditory conditional stimuli (CS), a continuous white noise and clicker (2 Hz), controlled by a variable-time 67-sec schedule. Presentations of one stimulus (CS+) were paired with EtOH (concentration as per experiment), whereas presentations of the second stimulus (CS−) were not. EtOH (0.2 mL/CS+; 3.2 mL/session) was delivered into the fluid port for oral consumption over the last 6 sec of each CS+. Ports were checked at the end of each session to ensure that all the EtOH had been consumed.

The CRUNSH trial mentioned above, is a newly-designed prospective

The CRUNSH trial mentioned above, is a newly-designed prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing crush-clamp to vascular stapler in elective liver resections, and is currently recruiting participants (29). Figure 9 Vascular stapler technique. The parenchyma is fractured with a clamp and the vessels are sealed with a vascular Endo-GIA stapler. This is authors’ preferred method of parenchymal transection. (Used with permission from: Poon RT. Current techniques … next laparoscopic approach

for liver resections The role of laparoscopy in surgery is a growing field. Currently it is now utilized in liver resections in institutions experienced Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with minimally invasive surgical techniques. There are several different minimally invasive approaches Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ranging from total laparoscopic, hand assisted laparoscopic, to the more recent robotic assisted liver resections. There are about 3000 reported laparoscopic liver resections in the literature (43). The majority of cases have been done total laparoscopic followed by hand assisted laparoscopic. The most common liver

resections performed laparoscopically are wedge resections, followed by left lateral segmentectomy (43,44). Generally, tumors in the periphery of the liver are also considered amenable to resection. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Major hepatectomies (left or right hepatectomy) are not as commonly performed. In the series reviewed by Nguyen et al., only about 9% of cases were left or right hepatectomy. Conversion rate to open in the most experienced hands is reported at 4.1% (44). In 2008 a consensus meeting at the University of Louisville established guidelines

for minimally invasive liver surgery (43). Indications for minimally invasive approach include solid tumors <5 cm, peripherally located Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tumors in segments 2-6, and major liver resections should be performed in highly experienced centers. The learning curve for minimally invasive laparoscopic liver Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical resections currently remains at 60 cases. Data currently shows the benefit of minimally invasive technique to be decreased blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and decrease use of pain medication (44). In metastatic colorectal cancer, the reported negative margin is 94.4%, with overall survival of 50% at 5 years in patients (43). In experienced centers, there does not appear to be any difference in disease free or Carfilzomib overall survival between open versus laparoscopic liver surgery. The technique involves using ultrasonic shears to dissect parenchyma with placement of clips on vessels or use of endo-GIA staplers for ligation of vasculature. Use of the da Vinci robot (da Vinci Surgical System, Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has gained recent popularity amongst hepatobiliary surgeons in performing minimally invasive liver resections. It is widely accepted that a left lateral segmentectomy should be approached laparoscopically.

De plus, l’imagerie moléculaire permet la détection de modificati

De plus, l’imagerie moléculaire permet la détection de modifications fonctionnelles précédant la pathologie manifeste, ce qui est particulièrement utile pour le diagnostic précoce et le traitement des troubles du SNC. Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à la capacité de l’imagerie moléculaire d’informer sur le développement et l’évaluation des traitements dans son application aux troubles du SNC, en particulier pour la schizophrénie, la maladie de Parkinson, la dépression et la démence, troubles majeurs du SNC. Nous analysons également la possibilité de piloter le développement de nouveaux médicaments

des troubles du SNC par l’imagerie moléculaire. Introduction Molecular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical imaging techniques Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such as positron emission

tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) enable the in vivo characterization and measurement of biologic processes using high-affinity and high-specificity molecular probes.1 PET and SPECT use molecules labeled with a radionuclide that emits photons, known as a radiotracer or radioligand, that are detected in the scanner to provide data on the localization of the radiolabeled molecule in the tissue of interest. As such they provide a noninvasive means of visualizing, and characterizing physiological processes in vivo and the opportunity to make discoveries in the living, intact Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical brain. The major

differences between PET and SPECT stem from the such information nature of the radionuclides used to label the tracer. The most commonly used radionuclides are 99mTc, 111In, 123I and 201T1 for SPECT, and 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F for PET. The radionuclides used for SPECT have relatively long half-lives, in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the range of hours, and emit a single photon. In contrast, those used in PET have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shorter half-lives, in the range of minutes to just under 2 hours in the case of 18F, and emit a positron, which annihilates when it collides with nearby electrons to emit two photons. The difference in the nature Brefeldin_A of photon emission leads to differences in emission detectors and image construction — SPECT uses collimation and PET uses coincidence detection. The advantages and limitations of both techniques follow from these properties — as SPECT tracers have longer half-lives they do not need an on-site cyclotron and, multiple scans are possible from one synthesis; this means they are cheaper to make than PET tracers. protein inhibitor However, PET uses radionuclides that tend to be easily combined with biological molecules, and has better resolution. Imaging in vivo can avoid the various potential biases or confounds of ex vivo studies, such as exposure to psychotropic drugs or mis-counting object fragments in a sectioned tissue volume2 whilst also enabling molecular alterations to be linked to clinical changes.

A correlation between preoperative serum prostate-specific antige

A correlation between preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, biopsy Gleason score, percentage of positive biopsy results, and the presence of lymph node metastases was calculated. The investigators

concluded that (1) the frequency of lymph node metastases is low in low-risk prostate cancer; (2) if more than 50% of biopsy cores are involved with prostate cancer, the risk of lymph node metastases increases significantly; and (3) if performed, pelvic lymphadenectomy has to be done in an extended variant. Preoperative serum PSA value, biopsy Gleason score, and PSA density are the best prognostic factors for patients with clinically locally advanced Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical prostate cancer (cT3a). The combination of preoperative PSA value and biopsy Gleason score provides accurate prediction of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical final histopathology. The aim of the study by Joniau and colleagues4 was to determine whether PSA density is a stronger predictive factor than preoperative PSA value for adverse final histopathology

(positive section margins, seminal vesical invasion, and positive lymph nodes). The study also analyzed whether PSA density can be used as a prognostic factor for biochemical Calcitriol vit d3 progression-free survival in patients with cT3a prostate cancer. The study consisted of a cohort of 200 patients with unilateral cT3a prostate cancer, assessed by digital rectal examination. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical All patients underwent radical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 17-DMAG prostatectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy. Multivariate analysis showed that PSA density is an independent prognostic factor and is stronger than PSA value in the prediction of adverse histopathology and biochemical progression-free survival in cT3a prostate cancer. Therefore, PSA density can be used for patient counseling before treatment selection in cases of locally advanced prostate cancer. Therapeutic Modalities

A very interesting new approach to dealing with prostate cancer is dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) after vascular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with padoporfin (Tookad®; Steba Biotech, The Hague, Netherlands).5 Tookad is a new photosensitizing drug being evaluated in phase I/II clinical trials. Each patient in the trial had an MRI scan upon enrollment. Drug_discovery Tookad was administered intravenously, and light was delivered by cylindrical diffusers in the prostate. Tookad provokes tissue ablation by causing occlusion of the blood vessels in a target tissue. Seven days later MRI was performed again, and subsequent MRI examinations followed at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment. Tookad VTP produced lesions that were clearly delineated by DCE-MRI. On the basis of the MRI data it seems likely that the Tookad VTP treatment leads to ablation of target tissue with minimal effects on surrounding tissues (ie, it respects the anatomic and tissue boundaries within the target lesion).


new randomized controlled trials designed for the


new randomized controlled trials designed for the evaluation of newer PAH drugs should stratify patients according to anticoagulant use. More studies are needed to answer previous questions related to patients’ selection and risk stratification, target INR, and role of new oral anticoagulants. price Telaprevir Conclusion Contemporary data from the COMPERA registry support the use of anticoagulant therapy in patients with idiopathic PAH, but not in other types of PAH. Importantly, the data substantiated the previously reported concern that anticoagulant therapy may be harmful in patients with scleroderma-associated PAH. Further research into the role of anticoagulation in PAH is needed to establish best practice recommendations.
The last fifty years have witnessed remarkable improvement in the morbidity and mortality trends of most cardiovascular diseases. However, heart failure (HF) remains a notable exception. HF is a growing global health problem in both industrialized and developing nations. In fact, HF is the second most common cause for hospital admissions; the first cause is normal delivery. 1 In the

United States, the number of people with HF is expected to rise 46 percent from 5 million in 2012 to 8 million in 2030. The rise in patient numbers will double the costs of HF treatment, from $31 billion in 2012, to a staggering $70 billion in 2030. 2 These facts have stimulated the search for new effective methods to combat HF. An attractive strategy is to integrate the early detection of high-risk patients at the primary care level with advanced

diagnostic and therapeutic strategies at the tertiary care level. The St Vincent’s Screening TO Prevent Heart Failure (STOP-HF) study is a recently published trial in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) assessing the use of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a screening tool for HF in an at-risk population in reducing newly-diagnosed heart failure and prevalence Cilengitide of significant left ventricular (LV) systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction. 3 STOP-HF trial design and results In this “first-of-its-type” study, the investigators recruited 1374 participants with various cardiovascular risk factors from a nurse-provided primary care cardiovascular screening program in the catchment area of St Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, between January 2005 and December 2009.Eligibility criteria were age older than 40 years (mean age, 64.8 [SD, 10.2] years) and a history of one or more of the following; hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmias, moderate to severe valvular heart disease.

Furthermore, mutational analysis

Furthermore, mutational analysis probably has more clinical significance in therapeutic aspect as it has predictive value for sensitivity to molecular-targeted therapy (including dosage) and prognostic value. It is strongly recommended that it should be included in the diagnostic work-up of all GISTs (135). The correlation between KIT and PDGFRA mutational status and the response to tyrosine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical kinase inhibitors and their

role in primary and secondary resistance has been widely investigated (31,136). Tumors harboring KIT exon 11 mutations have a better outcome under imatinib treatment than tumors harboring different mutation, whereas tumors with PDGFRA exon 18 mutations (D842V) have primary resistance to imatinib both in vivo and in vitro (27,71,137). Therefore, GIST mutational analysis is strongly recommended in current NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network) clinical practice guidelines (Figure 6) and in ESMO (European Society for Medical Oncology) clinical recommendations (138,139). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Table 2 Molecular classification of GISTs (134)* Figure 6 NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2012, Gastrointestinal

Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Abbreviations: H&P, history & physical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical examination; Mets, metastatic disease; IM, imatinib; Preop, preoperative; DX, diagnosis; SU; sunitinib; mo, month; y, year) Prognostic factors, grade and stage The risk of relapse of GISTs is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical estimated based on mitotic rate, tumor size, tumor site, surgical margins and the status of tumor rupture. Tumor size and mitotic count are considered to be the most useful and best studied prognostic factors by the 2002 Consensus risk classification (Table 3) (99). It is believed that indicating a risk level of GIST (low, intermediate, or high) is more appropriate than definitively labeling the tumor as Tubacin manufacturer benign or malignant. This risk classification was based on the cumulative experience of

the authors in the committee. The most important cut-offs Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as indicators of aggressive clinical behavior were tumor size of 5 cm and 5 mitoses/50 HPF. This consensus guideline indicated that all GISTs may have malignant potential (99). Based on long-term selleck follow-up of more than 1,600 GISTs (1,055 gastric, 629 small intestinal, 144 duodenal, and 111 rectal), Miettinen Batimastat and colleagues proposed risk classification incorporates primary tumor site in addition to the mitotic count and tumor size (Table 4) (140). It demonstrates the fact that gastric GISTs have a better prognosis than small intestine or rectal GISTs. The more recently updated consensus NCCN guidelines from 2007 (141) includes anatomic site as an additional parameter in risk assessment for GIST. Based on those guidelines, GISTs that are smaller than 2 cm are considered to be essentially benign.

Cyclic voltammetric deposition of PPI and AuNP on the GCE, theref

Cyclic voltammetric deposition of PPI and AuNP on the GCE, therefore, involves the formation of amine linkages between PPI and GCE while the AuNP were simultaneously deposited with the PPI.Figure 2.Structure of G4 Poly(propylene imine) dendrimer showing the peripheral primary amine and internal tertiary amine.Figure 3a, compares the electrochemical behaviour of GCE/PPI-AuNP (dotted line) against the bare GCE (solid line) in PBS. The PPI-AuNP composite film exhibited reversible electrochemistry characteristic of surface adsorbed species with formal potential E0�� = 233 �� 5 mV for six different measurements demonstrating the good reproducibility of the composite platform. To ascertain the species responsible for the reversible peaks, PPI and AuNP were deposited alone (Figures 3b and and3c).3c). In Figure 3b, ,33 mM PPI in PBS solution exhibited a quasi-reversible electrochemistry and when it was electro-deposited, the anodic and cathodic peaks separation became less. In Figure 3c, where only AuNP was deposited on GCE, no peaks were observed. This meant that the pair of peaks observed in Figure 3a (dotted line) was due to the PPI component of the nanocomposite. The reversibility of the electrochemical oxidation/reduction occurring within the PPI-AuNP nanocomposite platform was selleck chemicals confirmed by the ratio of anodic (Ipa) to cathodic (Ipc) peak currents, which was calculated to give 0.992. Also the anodic and cathodic square wave voltammograms gave approximately the same peak potential value (see Figure 3d). In addition, the integration of the anodic and cathodic CV peaks from Figure 3a (wave GCE/PPI-AuNP) gave charges of 528.1 nC and -524.7 nC, respectively, which are the same within experimental error.Figure 3.(a) CV of GCE and GCE/PPI-AuNP in PBS from -100 mV to 650 mV at 20 mV/s. (b) CV of 3 mM PPI solution on GCE and GCE/PPI. Background electrolyte is 10 mM PBS. (c) CV of GCE and GCE/AuNP with ssDNA and dsDNA in PBS. (d) Oxidative and reductive square wave …Figure 4a shows the CV of GCE/PPI-AuNP at different scan rate in PBS. From this figure, (i) the currents increased with increase in scan rate with no shift in potential, (ii) Ipa was proportional to scan rate and (iii) a plot of Ipa versus scan rate showed linearity (Figure 4a inset) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9978. It can thus be deduced that the platform was conducting and exhibited a reversible electrochemistry characteristic of surface adsorbed specie because Ipa versus scan rate was linear. Ideally, for surface adsorbed specie, Epa should be the same as Epc. However,
Ligand-receptor interaction in biological membranes plays important roles in the initiation of signal transduction [1]. For instance, signal transduction in nerve systems is mediated by neurotransmitters that bind to the receptor at postsynaptic membranes.