This was followed by a randomized, double-blind, placebo controll

This was followed by a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled Phase IIa study which assessed the formulation of 105.2 FFU/serotype in 60 healthy infants. SII BRV-PV/placebo was administered in 1:1 ratio as three doses with at least four weeks interval between doses. The study assessed the safety, BMS354825 immunogenicity and shedding of the vaccine. Close post-vaccination follow-up showed the vaccine to be safe and well tolerated. A summary of the solicited vaccine

reactogenicity is summarized in Table 2. Almost all the events were mild and transient. Two SAEs (urinary tract infections and septicemia) unrelated to study vaccines were reported and both recovered uneventfully. We saw no effect on laboratory parameters. Three doses of the vaccine were found immunogenic. The seroconversion post dose 2 was 36% and 7.14%, in vaccine and placebo arms respectively (p = 0.0160). The corresponding post dose 3 seroconversion were 48% and 21.43% (p = 0.0492) ( Table 3). The post dose 3 GMTs in vaccine and placebo arms were 18.55 U/ml; and 7.31 U/ml. Following these satisfactory results, a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled Phase IIb study was conducted which assessed the formulation of 105.6 FFU/serotype in 60 healthy infants. SII BRV-PV/placebo was administered in 1:1 ratio as three doses with at least four weeks interval. This formulation of the vaccine was also found safe and

well tolerated. A summary of the solicited vaccine reactogenicity is summarized in Table 2. Sirolimus datasheet Almost all the events were mild and transient. No SAE was reported and there no was no effect on laboratory parameters. Three doses of the 105.6 FFU/serotype formulation induced a significant immune response (Table 3). The seroconversion post dose 2 was 56.67% and 11.54%, in vaccine and placebo arms respectively (p value <0.05). The corresponding post dose 3 figures were 60% and 7.69% (p < 0.05). The seroconversion rates indicated that the 105.6 FFU/serotype formulation

is immunogenic in infants. These results are similar to those reported for the Rotarix (GSK) in an Indian study where the seroconversion rates were 58.3% [95% CI: 48.7; 67.4] in the Rotarix group and 6.3%; [95% CI: 2.5; 12.5] in the placebo group [20]. Another Indian study on the 116E vaccine showed 89.7% seroconversion in the vaccine arm and 28.1% in the placebo arm [21]. Another Indian study on Rotateq showed 83% 3-fold rise (seroconversion) in serum IgA antibodies; however the study had no placebo arm [22]. In developed countries, the seroresponses to rotavirus vaccines are high. The examples include a Korean study on Rotarix (88.1%) [23], a Korean study on Rotateq (94.7%) [24], a Japanese study on Rotarix (85.3%) [25], an European study on Rotarix (85.5–89.2%) [26], and a Finnish study on Rotarix (83.7–90.5%) [27]. However, for reasons not completely understood, the seroresponses are lower in developing countries. The examples include an African study on Rotateq (73.8–82.

8 The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of diffe

8 The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of different nutrients and cultural conditions on antimicrobial compound production and to purify extra cellular compound from the indigenous marine isolate S. coeruleorubidus BTSS-301 and to determine the structure of the purified compound. The indigenous organism designated as BTSS-301, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from Bay of Bengal near Visakhapatnam coast at a depth of 30 m. Morphological, cultural and physiological characteristics of the strain were studied PI3K inhibitor using the International Streptomyces Project (ISP) media recommended by Shirling and Gottlieb9

and was taxonomically characterized by using Polyphasic approach. The isolate has been identified as S. coeruleorubidus 10 (Data published). The following Alisertib datasheet microorganisms procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India were used during the investigation as test microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Escherichia coli (MTCC 443), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC 170), Candida albicans (MTCC 227), Aspergillus niger (MTCC 961), and Aspergillus

flavus (MTCC 3396). Seed medium composed of (g/l) soluble starch 25; Ammonium sulfate, 5; NaCl, 5; CaCO3, 5 with pH adjusted to 7.0 was used for the seed production. For the seed growth, mycelium from a seven day old, well-sporulated slant of the culture was inoculated into 200 ml of seed medium and grown at 28 °C with 120 rpm on a shaker incubator for 48 h. Then culture was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min to first separate the cells from the broth. The cell pellet was washed thoroughly and suspended in saline solution. 5 ml of this suspension was used as inoculum for the optimization experiments by shake flask culture. To determine the optimal nutritional and cultural conditions for growth and antimicrobial activity, Pridham and Gottlieb’s11 inorganic salt medium was used as

the production medium base. The effect of various carbon sources, glucose concentration, organic nitrogen sources, inorganic nitrogen sources, NH4NO3 concentration, metal ions and cultural conditions were optimized by using shake flask culture method. The biomass from the culture filtrate was separated by means of centrifugation. It was transferred to pre weighed dry Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The filter paper along with the biomass was dried in a hot air oven at 80 °C for 18–24 h to reach a fixed weight. Growth was expressed in terms of dry weight as mg/ml culture medium. The S. coeruleorubidus BTSS-301inoculum was introduced aseptically into sterile flasks containing ingredients (g/l) glucose, 10; NH4NO3, 2.5; K2HPO4, 2.0; MgSO4.7H2O, 1.0; and trace salt solutions 9 1.0 ml, with pH of the medium 7.2. The flasks were incubated for 96 h at 30 °C at 180 rpm. The culture filtrate was then separated by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 min.

10 and 11 Chronic pain is also associated with many secondary str

10 and 11 Chronic pain is also associated with many secondary stressors such as sleep disruption, unemployment and interpersonal tensions.12 Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by profound disabling fatigue lasting at least 6 months and accompanied by numerous symptoms such as pain,

sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment.13 Chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue also have personal economic, psychological and social consequences for the affected individuals.12, LY294002 concentration 14 and 15 One in three people with pain or fatigue disorders is unable or less able to maintain an independent lifestyle11 and 50 to 66% of people suffering from chronic pain are less able or unable to exercise, enjoy normal sleep, perform household chores, attend social activities, drive a car, walk or have sexual relations.16 Although key risk factors have been Ion Channel Ligand Library high throughput identified, the incidence of chronic pain, fibromyalgia and fatigue disorders has been increasing, rendering their management a persistent challenge.14 Fear avoidance models emphasise psychological distress, pain-related anxiety,

anxiety sensitivity, fear of illness/injury, fear of re-injury and catastrophising in the development and maintenance of disabling chronic pain.17 International and national guidelines recommend graded activity and graded exposure in the treatment of chronic disorders.15, 18, 19, 20 and 21 The validity of self-reported assessment of pain and physical disability is controversial. The level of pain reported by people with chronic pain is not always related to their reports of their physical disability. Nevertheless, pain, fear of pain and its consequences are subjective experiences and are difficult to assess.22 Observational measures may be useful to corroborate subjective

reports when click here evaluating each person’s capability.23 and 24 Ideally, evaluation of physical function in people with chronic pain and chronic fatigue disorders should rely on a combination of clinical assessment of impairments, behavioural observation of physical function, and self-report.25 Despite this, there is limited evidence about the acceptability, reliability and validity of submaximal and maximal exercise tests measuring physical fitness and capacity in this group of people. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal testing with calorimetry is considered to be the gold standard.26 and 27 However, outcomes of this measurement are strongly influenced by motivation, fear and pain.26 Furthermore, outcomes are invalid when fear and pain expectation rather than aerobic capacity limit performance.28 In one study, over 90% of the variance in performance among disabled individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain was predicted by psychosocial factors like self-efficacy, perceived emotional and physical functioning, pain intensity and pain cognition.

A powder X-ray diffractometer, D2 Phaser with Lynxeye (Bruker, Ge

A powder X-ray diffractometer, D2 Phaser with Lynxeye (Bruker, Germany) was used to assess the crystallinity of prednisolone in the drug loaded tablets. Samples were scanned from 2Theta = 5° to 50° using a scan type coupled with a two theta/theta scintillation counter over 30 min. A Mettler Toledo DSC823e DSC (Mettler, Switzerland) was utilized to perform thermal analysis. MS-275 concentration Samples of approximately 5 mg were accurately weighed and placed in a 40 μL standard aluminium pan DSC analysis. Analysis was carried on under a nitrogen

environment (50 mL/min). In order to exclude the effect of humidity, samples were heated to 100 °C for 5 min then cooled to −20 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min. This was followed by a heat scan from −20 °C to 300 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min. All measurements were carried out in triplicates. A flow-through

cell (Sotax, Switzerland) dissolution apparatus with an open loop system was utilized to assess drug release pattern from the 3D printed tablets. The dissolution apparatus was connected to piston pumps and a fraction collector (Sotax, Switzerland). Cells of 12 mm diameter containing selleck chemicals 5 mm glass beads were utilized during the study. Filtration was conducted using 25 mm glass microfiber filter discs (FG/B) (Whatman, US) which were placed above the cells. The prednisolone loaded tablets were analysed using dissolution media of a pH 1.2 (HCl 0.1 M) for 2 h followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for additional 22 h at 37 ± 0.5 °C. The flow rate was 8 ml/min and samples were collected to Sotax fraction collector at time intervals 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h. Samples were further filtered through 0.22 μm Millex-GP syringe filter (Merck Millipore, USA) and analysed by HPLC (section 2.5). Three tablets of each strength were assessed. Ellipse shaped tablets were printed using an FDM 3D printer loaded with original PVA (drug free) filament. When a series of PVA tablet with increasing dimensions were printed, a high level of correlation was identified between the theoretical volume of the

tablet ADP ribosylation factor design and the mass of the printed tablets (R2 = 0.9996). This indicated the ability of FDM 3D printing method to achieve a sufficient control of the mass of the printed tablets. Such ability is a key advantage for developing a mini-manufacturing unit that can tailor tablet mass by manipulating the volume of the design through an input on software. In order to investigate the ability of the printed tablet to contain a given dose of API and control its release, a model drug needed to be incorporated into PVA filament before loading it in the nozzle of the 3D printer. Prednisolone was chosen as a model drug due to its high thermal stability and neutral nature. A simple loading process based on incubation in methanolic solution was developed. The yielded prednisolone loaded filament showed a drug loading of approximately 1.9% w/w.

The polyphenols scavenge free radicals and doesn’t allow them to

The polyphenols scavenge free radicals and doesn’t allow them to damage the cell. Due to its free radicals scavenging activity, S. oleosa is a potent antioxidant. Free radicals scavenging activity can also be correlated to cytotoxicity. It exhibits toxicity against various cell lines and was found to be an effective anticancer agent. It, moreover, has a great scope of being an effective antimicrobial agent since it showed good activity against various microbes. It was also found that this plant has various environmental aspects to it as well. The biodiesel produced from it, is found to have many properties similar to that of diesel e.g. viscosity and volatility. Also, its cetane

number is higher than that of petroleum; therefore it can replace diesel for the combustion engine. On the basis of physico-chemical, growth and

bio-chemical parameters ABT-263 concentration C. inophyllum and B. orellana were found to be more capable for phytoremediation of the contaminated soil compared to S. oleosa. Furthermore, it was observed that it contained low tannin levels, thus it can be considered safe to be used as a livestock feed. This article can provide tremendous opportunities to conduct research HKI 272 related to a variety of aspects of this plant. All authors have none to declare. The authors are thankful to the University of Delhi for the financial support under the innovation projects (SVC-101). “
“Cesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world.1 One of the most frequent complications of delivery is Histone demethylase primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), defined as blood loss greater than or equal to 500 ml within 24 h after birth and severe PPH as blood loss greater than or equal to 1000 ml within 24 h.2 One of the measurements of blood loss during cesarean section is calculation based on postoperative decrement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level. The model used for pregnant women was previously validated for non-pregnant women who underwent gynecological surgery.3 However, the drop of Hct has been reported to be only around

4% in women undergoing cesarean deliveries.4 So many researchers recently have begun evaluating usefulness and cost-effectiveness of routine Hb and Hct testing after elective uncomplicated cesarean section in women asymptomatic for severe bleeding and anemia.5 In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of routine postoperative hemoglobin testing after unplanned, uneventful cesarean sections in low-risk women without any possible risk factors associated with hemorrhage. In this retrospective study, we evaluate the hematological results, especially hemoglobin and hematocrit levels of pregnant women who underwent unplanned and uneventful cesarean section. Unplanned cesarean section was defined as a non-elective cesarean delivery performed at term with the onset of labor.

The observed lipase production at 1% CaCl2 was found to be 15 33 

The observed lipase production at 1% CaCl2 was found to be 15.33 μg/ml/min, whereas only 1.56 μg/ml/min with HgCl2. These ions alter the conformation of the protein to counter greater enzyme stability

by binding to the enzyme. Glusker et al 21 suggested, that metal ions function as electrophiles seeking the opportunity to share electron pairs with other atoms, such that a bond or charge–charge interaction might be formed. Lipase production with Hexane having P value of 3.5 was found to be 12.03 μg/ml/min. BTK inhibitor solubility dmso Highest levels of activity was observed in Hexane according to Baharum et al. 22 Organic solvents with Log P value less than 2 are not considered good for biocatalysis 23 because they distort the essential water from enzyme thereby inactivating it. Solvents with log P values in the range of 2–4 are weak water distorters and their effect on enzyme activity was unpredictable and solvents with P values less than 4 do not distort the essential water layer, thereby being the ideal reaction

media. Triton X100 at 1% showed highest lipase activity of 22 U/ml/min. According to Wu and Tsai, 24 higher levels of lipase production were observed when the substrate formed an emulsion, thereby presenting an interfacial area to the enzyme. Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of lipases that differ in their enzymatic characteristics such as substrate specificity, pH, temperature

activity profile. Lipases possess fatty acid specificity with reference to the carbon chain length. Generally, bacterial lipases have learn more neutral25 or alkaline pH optima.26 Extracellular microbial lipases can be produced relatively cheaply by fermentation and are available in large quantities for industrial use. Tolerance of S. aureus to pH values > 5.5 is due to intracellular pH maintenance by sequestering protons from cytoplasm and by expressing genes responsible for cytoplasm buffering. An acidic stress and the drop of intracellular pH alter the membrane structure and lead to a decrease in the activity of several enzymes which are pH sensitive. The optimum temperature for lipase production PAK6 corresponds with the growth temperature of the respective microorganism. Muraoka et al reported that lipase from S. aureus 226 preferred unsaturated fatty acids for its growth. 27 From the available literature, it can be inferred that lipases are generally stable in organic solvents, with few exceptions of stimulation or inhibition. 26 Metal cations, particularly Ca2+ play an important role in influencing the structure, function of lipases have been reported. 28 and 29 Further, lipase activity is in general inhibited drastically by heavy metals like CO2+, Ni2+, Hg2+and Sn2+and slightly inhibited by Zn2+ and Mg2+. 30 However, the requirement for metal ion varies with the organism.

3 (Beckman Coulter, USA) or Flowjo v7 6 5 (Tree Star, USA) softwa

3 (Beckman Coulter, USA) or Flowjo v7.6.5 (Tree Star, USA) software. All analyses were gated on a minimum of 100,000 live lymphocytes. All data were analyzed with GraphPad Prism 5 software (GraphPad, USA) using un-paired student’s two-sided t-test (2 treatment groups) or one- or two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test (3 treatment groups). Mycobacterial counts were log10 transformed before comparison. A Two-tailed correlation analysis was used to obtain coefficient of determination (r2) from the Pearson correlation coefficient (r).

Differences selleck with a p value <0.05 were considered significant and denoted with *, <0.01 with ** and <0.001 with ***. To establish the long-term persistence of viable BCG bacilli, groups of mice were immunized at week 0 with a standard dose (2 × 105 CFU) of the licensed human vaccine BCG Danish 1331. At sequential monthly time-points, the BCG burden of individual mice was determined in pooled draining lymph nodes (d.LNs), spleen and lungs; plating the entire organs/tissues to maximise detection. Fig. 1A demonstrates that viable BCG bacilli were cultured from the d.LNs throughout the experimental duration of 16 months. The burden was highest and most consistent at 6 weeks post immunization (p.i.) at 3.0 log10 CFU Trichostatin A mw (±0.5), decreasing

to 2.4 log10 CFU (±0.5) at 16 months p.i. BCG were cultured from the majority of spleen samples, although with large replicate variability. CFU counts increased from 1.7 log10 CFU (±1.7) at 6 weeks p.i. to 2.3 log10 CFU (±2.3) at 17 weeks p.i., decreasing to 0.0 log10 CFU (±2.0) by 16 months p.i. Culture of BCG from the lungs was sporadic and only possible in

1 or 2 replicates at each time point up to 22 weeks p.i., after which it was undetected. Given the established importance of IFN-γ producing CD4 T cells in protection against TB, the frequency of BCG-specific IFN-γ secretors in the spleen was evaluated by ex vivo ELISPOT using defined protein cocktail at defined time-points following BCG immunization. TCL Fig. 1B shows that whilst IFN-γ secreting cell frequency was maximal at 6 weeks p.i. (1197 SFU/million cells) and declined thereafter; substantial frequencies of IFN-γ secreting cells (478 SFU/million cells) were present 16 months p.i., as previously described [9]. Regression analyses between the mean spleen IFN-γ ELISPOT frequency and the mean bacterial burden in d.LNs showed a statistically significant correlation, demonstrating a clear link between antigen load (from the most reliable tissue indicator) and IFN-γ responses circulating through the spleen (Fig. 1C). To establish the minimum treatment regimen to clear persistent bacilli after BCG immunization, groups of mice were immunized with BCG for 6 weeks (previously shown to induce protection) [9] and [28].

Not all steps in the process were part of each coaching session

Not all steps in the process were part of each coaching session. The anticipated length of each coaching session was approximately 30 minutes, with the actual duration of each coaching session dependent on the rate of progress through the protocol. The coach did not offer any treatment advice or comment on the treatment provided by the treating physiotherapist check details or any other treating health practitioner. If the participant had specific questions

regarding their treatment, the coach encouraged the participant to discuss the concerns with the relevant practitioner. Coaching was applied via telephone once per week for 4 weeks after baseline, and once more 3 weeks later. In order to provide support throughout return to usual activity, coaching continued for a total of 5 sessions even if the participant reported returning to full activities. Coaching also continued for 5 sessions if the participant reported being discharged from physiotherapy or decided to pursue alternative forms of treatment. Coaching was applied independently to physiotherapy and there was no correspondence between the treating therapist and the coach. The treating physiotherapists were blind to group allocation in order to ensure knowledge of the coaching intervention did not influence their

management of the patient. Primary outcome: The primary outcome was activity limitation measured by the Patient Specific Functional Scale ( Stratford et al 1995). For this scale, participants Selleck RG-7204 identified their primary non-leisure activity and two other activities they were unable to perform to the same level as they could before the problem. The item ratings were averaged to yield a total score between 0 and 10 where a higher score

indicates better functioning. The score for the single-item primary non-leisure activity was also analysed separately. The Patient Specific Functional Scale Oxygenase has high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.97) ( Stratford et al 1995), concurrent validity with other measures of back-specific activity limitation (r = 0.55 to 0.74) ( Donnelly and Carswell, 2002), and responsiveness to change in low back pain populations ( Pengel et al 2004). The minimum clinically important difference established in previous studies was 2 points on the average Patient Specific Functional Scale score ( Maughan and Lewis, 2010), and 3 points on the primary non-leisure activity ( Stratford et al 1995). Secondary outcomes: The modified Oswestry Disability Index ( Fritz and Irrgang, 2001) was also used as a region-specific measure of activity limitation. The Oswestry Index is scored as a percentage, with a higher percentage indicating a higher level of back-related disability. It has demonstrated evidence of reliability and validity ( Davidson and Keating, 2002, Jolles et al 2005, Ostelo and de Vet, 2005, Roland and Fairbank, 2000).

A transcriptional profile favoring pro-inflammatory monocytes and

A transcriptional profile favoring pro-inflammatory monocytes and β-adrenergic signaling was also identified in human subjects of low socioeconomic

status, a form of chronic social stress. Further, Heidt et al. (2014) found that chronic variable stress increases numbers of monocytes and neutrophils in mouse blood and bone marrow due to proliferation of leukocyte progenitors. Stress-enhanced hematopoietic activity was accompanied by increased bone marrow noradrenaline levels and decreased expression of CXCL12, a negative regulator of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation and migration that is in turn regulated by the β3-adrenergic receptor. Treatment of stressed mice Selleckchem BGB324 with a β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist increased CXCL12 expression, reduced HSPC proliferation and attenuated the stress-induced increase in circulating neutrophils and Ly6chigh monocytes. Together, these studies provide selleck compelling evidence in both humans and mice linking stress vulnerability to sympathetic nervous system mediated leukocytosis. Potentially informative future studies include an investigation of leukocyte population shifts and transcriptional

profiles in blood and bone marrow of stress resilient subjects. Many of the peripheral findings we’ve discussed focus primarily on stress susceptible animals and suggest immune mechanisms of passive resilience—resilient why and control animals lack peripheral markers that are present and detrimental in susceptible animals. However, as research in the field shifts to focus more on pre-existing individual differences in inflammation as a proxy for vulnerability and resilience to depression and anxiety, we anticipate elucidation of active immune mechanisms of resilience, an exciting prospect due to the relative feasibility of therapeutically targeting peripheral systems with monoclonal antibodies, thus reducing off-target effects in the central nervous system. Peripheral cytokine signals reach the central nervous system via two main pathways—stimulation

of the vagal nerves and brainstem nuclei (the neural pathway) and crossing of the blood–brain barrier (the humoral pathway, see Fig. 1) (Dantzer et al., 2008, Wohleb et al., 2013, Pavlov and Tracey, 2012 and Quan, 2008). Centrally derived cytokine signals are produced by microglia, resident brain macrophages. Within the brain, inflammatory signals can influence behavior through mechanisms including activation of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid-induced neuronal atrophy (Iwata et al., 2013) as well as excitatory synaptic plasticity (see Fig. 2) (Christoffel et al., 2011a and Boersma et al., 2011). Numerous studies investigating central stress-induced inflammatory processes have revealed a prominent role for IL-1β. Iwata et al.

subtilis, suggests that the severity of disease is linked with th

subtilis, suggests that the severity of disease is linked with the bacterial number involved in infection. The severity also extended in the fifth instar larvae, where many failed to metamorphose and never reached the adult stage. Thus, the study suggests that transmission of pathogens is through the parents and after a latent period of incubation pathogen reaches to a lethal number to cause tissue damage in the host and resultant death is inevitable. Study further suggests that the transmission

of pathogenic bacterium occurs transovarially and has been reported for the first time in the silkworm, B. mori. All authors have none to declare. “
“Acinetobacter species are aerobic Gram-negative bacilli that have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens, especially among critically ill patients. 1 BMS-907351 datasheet Clinical manifestations of Acinetobacter Venetoclax mw infections includes hospital acquired pneumonia, blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, meningitis and wound infection. 2 Because of frequent resistance to the aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporin, carbapenem are widely used for managing acinetobacter infections. 2 The emergence of carbapenem

resistance in Acinetobacter spp is a significant public health concern because of limited option of antibiotic treatment. 3 Carbapenemases found in Acinetobacter may belong to class B (Metallo enzymes MBL: IMP, VIM, SIM and NDM-1) or to class D (OXA enzymes), the latter being most commonly found worldwide. 4 The OXA carbapenemases of Acinetobacter are divided into four phylogenetic subgroups: OXA-23-like; OXA-24-like; OXA-51-like and OXA-58. 4 There is recent emergence of MBL NDM-1 in different enterobacterial species 5 and also in Acinetobacter especially Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease in India 6 has been reported. Strains of Acinetobacter were isolated from inpatients of SRM hospital from different samples i.e. sputum, tracheal aspirate, wound swab, blood, urine etc. All isolates met the criteria of being lactose nonfermenting, glucose non-acidifier, Gram-negative bacilli, catalase positive, oxidase negative and citrate positive.

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed preliminarily by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method using routine drugs including imipenem as per CLSI guidelines. Strains which showed resistance to imipenem by disk diffusion methods were further tested by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by agar dilution method. The antimicrobial concentration ranges tested were 0.03–128 μg/ml for imipenem. Genomic DNA extraction was done by using (Pure Fast Bacterial genomic DNA purification kit) from all strains of Acinetobacter which showed resistance to imipenem by both disk diffusion and agar dilution method. OXA-23, OXA-58 7 and 8 and NDM-1 9 carbapenemases-encoding genes were used as targets for multiplex PCR assay.