To investigate the penetration of water and seasonings, maps of spin-spin relaxation time and their profiles from the center to the surface of
a spaghetti strand were acquired by magnetic resonance imaging. The homogenization of moisture distribution in cooked spaghetti during holding was delayed temporarily by salt owing to a back current MDV3100 chemical structure caused by the gradient of salt content on the surface immediately after tossing. Monosodium glutamate rapidly penetrated into spaghetti strands and caused water T-2 decrease possibly owing to the decreased mobility of water molecules in starch gel, whereas the sweeteners hardly altered the T-2 maps. Salt and monosodium glutamate are considered to retard more effectively the deterioration
of firmness of spaghetti. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Survival and growth of Bacillus cereus group and presumptive Cronobacter in the rehydrated sunsik were investigated to control the pathogens. Five sunsik contaminated naturally by the pathogens were rehydrated with hot waters of 50, 60, 65, and 70 degrees C and kept for 24 hr at 5 and 25 degrees C. Survival and growth of B. cereus seemed to be influenced not by rehydration water temperature, but by storage temperature and time after rehydration. However, survival and growth of Cronobacter was influenced by both rehydration see more temperature and storage conditions. Especially, storage temperature and time seemed to be more important than the rehydration temperature to limit the growth of Cronobacter. Therefore, it is required to take immediately the sunsik after rehydration with at least 65 degrees C water, otherwise within 6 hr at room temperature for the risk reduction of B. cereus and Cronobacter.”
“Objective. The waist circumference (WC) cutoff levels defined for the Caucasian people may not be representative for different ethnic groups. We determined sex specific WC cutoff points to predict obesity, metabolic
syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in Turkish adults. APR-246 order Design and Methods. The demographic characteristics of 1898 adult males and 2308 nonpregnant females from 24 provinces of 7 different regions of Turkey (mean age 47 +/- 14 yrs) were evaluated. Results. The WC levels of 90 cm and 100 cm define overweight and obese males while the levels of 80 cm and 90 cm define overweight and obese females. With these cutoff values, 239 additional males (12.6%) are diagnosed as overweight and 148 additional males (7.8%) as obese. Instead, 120 females (5.1%) are free of being labeled as obese. Conclusions. This is the first nationwide study to show the action levels of WC for overweight and obese Turkish adults. The ideal cutoff levels of WC to predict metabolic syndrome are 90 cm and 80 cm for Turkish adult men and women, respectively. These values are easy to implement and suggested to be used by the physicians dealing with cardiometabolic disorders in Turkey.