These loads were compared to the annual sales upstream of Lobith

These loads were compared to the annual sales upstream of Lobith. This mass balance approach shows that substantial fractions (1.1% to 70.4%) of the 20 most frequently observed pharmaceuticals sold in the Rhine catchment area are recovered in the Rhine at Lobith.

The observed annual loads were compared to loads predicted from annual sales in the catchment area, excreted fractions by humans and removal by waste water treatment. Observed and predicted annual loads were rather similar. The difference of the loads obtained from monitoring data and estimated from consumption was smaller than a factor of seven and did not exceed a factor of two for 15 out of the 20 pharmaceuticals. This illustrates the potential CFTRinh172 of using sales data for the prediction of concentrations in the aqueous environment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate long-term morbidity of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Study design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including women who gave

birth between the years of 1988 to 1998, and had a follow-up until December 2009. Data were extracted by linking a computerized database of hospitalizations with computerized database containing maternal records from the same regional medical center. The exposed group comprised 2072 patients with mild or severe preeclampsia in one or more of their pregnancies and the comparison group included 20742 patients without preeclampsia. Excluded GSK2126458 nmr from the study were patients with chronic hypertension and pre-gestational diabetes before the index pregnancy. Data included subsequent hospitalizations in internal medicine, oncology, nephrology, neurology, cardiac intensive care unit, and hematology, as well as a diagnosis

of chronic hypertension during the follow-up period. Results: Patients with preeclampsia had significantly higher rates of chronic hypertension diagnosed after the index pregnancy as compared with patients without preeclampsia (12.5% vs. 0.9%; OR = 15.8, 95% CI 12.9-19.3; p < 0.001). Likewise, patients with preeclampsia were more likely to be hospitalized at least once (13.7% vs. 11.4%; OR = 1.2, Quizartinib datasheet 95% CI 1.1-1.4; p = 0.002) as compared with patients without preeclampsia. Exposed women had 582 hospitalizations (0.28 hospitalization/patient), while the non-exposed patients had a total of 4687 hospitalizations (0.23 hospitalization/patient; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Preeclampsia is a significant risk factor for long-term morbidity such as chronic hypertension and hospitalizations later in life.”
“Low-dose organochlorine (OC) pesticides have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in several non-Asian general populations. As there is currently epidemic type 2 diabetes in Asia, we investigated the associations between DC pesticides and type 2 diabetes in Koreans.

RESULTS: For the bioreduction process of Fe(II)EDTA-NO, P denitr

RESULTS: For the bioreduction process of Fe(II)EDTA-NO, P. denitrificans could use glucose and Fe(II)EDTA as electron donors. At different selleck chemical stages, primary electron donors were different, thereby

affecting the concentration of Fe(II)EDTA in the system. It was also proved that this strain not only reduced Fe(III)EDTA with glucose as the electron donor but also secreted several substances that reacted with Fe(III)EDTA, resulting in increased Fe(II)EDTA concentration in the solution. CONCLUSIONS: This work has shown that P. denitrificans can reduce Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(III)EDTA simultaneously to regenerate NOX absorption solution. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“A drift-diffusion model for simulating direct current discharge including the externally applied magnetic field is analyzed by a high-resolution, diagonally

dominant numerical procedure. Three different configurations of direct current discharge were studied numerically-the electrodynamic structures of the classic parallel electrodes of infinite CA4P supplier and finite dimension, as well as the side-by-side electrode configurations. In the final configuration, an externally applied transverse magnetic field has also been applied in computational simulation to study the Lorentz force effect to the discharge structure. The solutions were compared to classic results, similar numerical simulations, and experimental observations SN-38 in vivo of the discharge physics. Overall, the agreement is very good and the model can be used as a basis for the design of flow control experiments.”
“Objective-To use decision and sensitivity analysis to examine the delivery of health care on US dairy farms as measured by correction of left displaced abomasum (LDA).

Sample Population-5 journal articles evaluating outcomes from veterinarian-

or herd personnel-delivered correction of LDA via laparotomy or a roll-and-toggle procedure.

Design-Economic analysis.

Procedures-A decision tree was constructed on the basis of published outcome data for correction of LDAs performed by veterinarians and herd personnel. Sensitivity of the model to changing input assumptions was evaluated via an indifference curve and tornado graph.

Results-Decision tree analysis revealed that correction of an LDA provided by herd personnel had an expected economic advantage of $76, compared with correction provided by a veterinarian. Sensitivity of this analysis to variations in inputs indicated that changes of 2 input levels would shift the advantage to veterinarian-provided correction: a reduction (from 0.74 to 0.62) in the probability of success for correction provided by herd personnel or an increase (from 0.78 to 0.87) in the probability of success for correction provided by a veterinarian.

Study design Fifty-five consecutive patients requiring maxillary

Study design. Fifty-five consecutive patients requiring maxillary orthognathic surgery were included in this study. The plan for digital model surgery (DMS) was dictated by the surgical plans for each clinical case. see more We carried out digital model

mounting, DMS, wafer printing, and confirmation of the accuracy of the procedure.

Results. Moving the reference points to the target position in DMS involved a mean error of 0.00-0.09 mm. The mean errors confirmed by the model remounting procedure with the printed wafer by DMS were 0.18-0.40 mm (for successful cases; n = 42) and 0.03-1.04 mm (for poor cases; n = 3).

Conclusion. The accuracies of the wafers by DMS were similar to those for wafers produced by manual model surgery, although they were less accurate than those produced by DMS alone. The rapid-prototyped interocclusal wafer produced with the aid of DMS can be an alternative procedure for maxillary orthognathic surgery. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:278-285)”
“Various N-acyl chitosans with propionyl-, hexanoyl-, nonanoyl-, lauroyl-, pentadecanoyl-, and stearoyl-groups were synthesized and self-aggregated N-acyl chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were prepared by sonication. By the modification with N-acyl groups, CSNPs increased their

hydrophobic character and changed its structural PARP assay features to be more suitable as a delivery carrier. The mean diameters of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded N-acyl CSNPs ranged from 138 to 551 nm. Uniform particle size distribution of BSA-loaded N-acyl CSNPs was observed. The protein loading efficiency of N-acyl CSNPs was about 9495% with lower BSA concentration (0.1 mg/mL) and not significantly different with acyl chain length. With higher BSA concentration (1.0 mg/mL), however, the highest

protein loading efficiency was observed with lauroyl and pentadecanoyl CSNPs. The results suggest that lauroyl and pentadecanoyl CSs are interesting candidates for protein delivery system. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Optical properties of homeotropically LY2835219 cost aligned flexoelectric nematic layers deformed by dc electric fields were analyzed by calculating the phase difference DU between ordinary and extraordinary light rays passing through a layer placed between crossed polarizers. A phase difference arises when the bias voltage U exceeds the threshold value UT. Close to the threshold, DU increases linearly with U. The possibility of using this effect to detect the flexoelectric properties of the nematic was explored by simulated experiments. The method considered in this paper is based on measurement of the slope of the linear section of the voltage dependence of DU, which depends on the sum of the flexoelectric coefficients and which differs from a well-known theoretical slope that ignores flexoelectric properties. The difference between the slopes reveals the flexoelectric properties of the nematic.

The common molecular features observed in different tumors determ

The common molecular features observed in different tumors determine clinical actions in a better way than organ-based classification. Thus, comparisons between tumors residing in different locations but with shared molecular characteristics will improve the therapeutic approach and the understanding of the biology of cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:70-74. ((c)) 2013 American Cancer Society.”

To elucidate the outcome of transvaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery using polypropylene mesh (Gynemesh; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) for patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage III or IV.



patients who underwent transvaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery from September 2004 through December 2005 were collected and analyzed. All patients underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy Salubrinal with Gynemesh reinforcement.


The average age

of the patients was 64.1 years and average parity was 3.9. Thirty-four patients had Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage 0, four patients had stage I, and one patient had stage II at a median follow-up time of 18 months postoperatively. The success rate was 97.4%. Only one patient (2.6%) had recurrent genital prolapse (stage II) postoperatively. Quality of life was evaluated before and after the operations. The mean scores on the Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7) 3-Methyladenine ic50 were 5.0 +/- 4.6 and 8.7 +/- 6.2

before the operation and 3.0 +/- 4.7 and 3.2 +/- 5.6 after the operation, respectively (P = 0.03 and 0.01). The complication rate was 10.3 %, including one vaginal mesh erosion (2.6%), one dyspareunia (2.6%) and two prolonged bladder drainage (longer than 14 days, 5.1%). The mean duration of postoperative bladder drainage was 2.4 days and mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.1 days. Neither long-term nor major complication was identified.


Transvaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery with polypropylene mesh reinforcement is a safe and effective procedure for POP on 1.5 years’ follow- up. It also learn more has positive influence on quality of life.”
“Mildmay Uganda (MUg), an HIV treatment centre near Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has entered into a memorandum of understanding to collaborate with Canadian researchers at the University of Ottawa to develop their research programme and develop an observational cohort database (the MUg observational cohort). The primary objectives of the MUg observational cohort are to monitor clinical care and outcomes of HIV among patients on treatment and to bring awareness to trends that are functional and dysfunctional in HIV care in Uganda. The MUg observational cohort comprises 8835 individuals who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at MUg between January 2004 and October 2011. There are considerably more women (63.

Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were focally and weakly po

Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were focally and weakly positive for c-kit and diffusely positive for CD34, but were negative for PKC-theta, SMA, S-100 protein,

ALK-1, and desmin. Our case re-emphasizes the broad morphologic spectrum of GISTs.”
“BACKGROUND With the continuing increase in the incidence of skin cancer, delivery of cost-efficient skin cancer treatment is a top priority. OBJECTIVE To compare costs associated with removal of skin cancers using Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) with that using standard surgical excision (SSE) with frozen or permanent margin control in the office or an ambulatory surgery center (ASC).

METHODS AND MATERIALS Costs for actual MMS and calculated costs for all SSE were recorded. The expense of treatment of incomplete

excisions with subsequent reexcision and reconstruction and MMS on recurrent tumors were added to the final estimate.

RESULTS Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library clinical trial Four hundred six tumors were included in the CX-6258 study. An average tumor was cleared in 1.6 stages. MMS was the least expensive surgical procedure evaluated, at $805 per tumor. SSE with permanent margins ($1,026) was more expensive than MMS but less expensive than SSE with frozen margins ($1,200) and ASC-SSE with frozen margins ($2,507). Adjusted for inflation, the cost of MMS, inclusive of initial examination, biopsy, and 5-year follow-up, in 2009 ($1,376) was lower than in 1998 ($1,635).

CONCLUSIONS This study confirms MMS as the cornerstone of cost-effective treatment, regardless of place of service or type of margin control pathology.”
“Herein, we describe cases of pulmonary acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in two patients occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) due to precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a 6-year-old patient and in acute myeloid leukemia in a 14-year-old boy. In both cases, chest CT revealed confluent ground-glass attenuation along the GDC-0994 bronchovascular bundles, as well as some bronchial

dilatation. Microscopically, in both cases we noted a characteristic bronchiolocentric pattern and bronchiolar epithelial changes, which included denudation of the bronchiolar epithelium, regenerating atypical cells, and wall thickening with subepithelial or transmural fibroblast proliferation, along with some lymphocytic infiltration. One patient died on day 86 after allogeneic HSCT due to sudden acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the other patient currently remains alive without active aGVHD. The authors’ experiences in these two cases demonstrate that intense awareness of the pathologic findings of GVHD is mandatory after allogeneic HSCT.”
“Nefiracetam is a novel pyrrolidone-type nootropic compound shown in preliminary trials to increase blood flow and improve patient outlook and energy following stroke. Of 137 stroke patients with major depression, 70 also met published diagnostic criteria for apathy (51.

In all treatments, H2O2 production is dependent on Ca2+ influx an

In all treatments, H2O2 production is dependent on Ca2+ influx and protein phosphorylation events. Similarly, the joint action of both elicitors provokes NO accumulation, although to a lesser extent that in MJ-treated cells because CDs alone do not trigger this accumulation. This NO production Nepicastat concentration is dependent on Ca2+ influx but independent of both H2O2 production and staurosporine-sensitive phosphorylation events.

Taken as a whole, these results suggest the existence of different intracellular signaling pathways

for both elicitors. Likewise, CDs might act by regulating the signaling pathway triggered by MJ since, in the presence of both compounds, CDs neutralize the strong oxidative and nitrosative bursts triggered ACY-241 ic50 by MJ and therefore, they regulate both H2O2 and NO levels. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“Background and Aims: Mycobacterium mucogenicum (MM) is a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium that is commonly identified in tap water that can rarely cause bacteremia. We describe an outbreak of MM bacteremia among pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

Methods: Charts of children with MM bacteremia were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, underlying conditions, central venous catheter (CVC) type, duration of bacteremia, and treatment were retrieved. Epidemiologic

investigation was conducted during the outbreak including environmental sampling.

Results: During an 8-month period (September 2005-May 2006), 8 patients aged 1.5 to 17 years had MM bacteremia. Seven patients had underlying malignancy and 1 with thalassemia major had bone marrow transplantation. The mean number of positive blood cultures was 4.2 (1-11) per patient. Two patients received antibiotic treatment in addition to removal of GPCR Compound Library molecular weight CVC. All patients were cured. Almost 60 environmental samples were obtained from surfaces, ice, and municipal water supply. All were negative and no source was documented. Infection control measures included emphasis on guidelines for prevention of CVC-associated infections. No cases occurred before and after this outbreak.


MM is a rare agent of CVC-associated bacteremia. Removal of the CVC may be sufficient for management of bacteremia. In the absence of definite source identification, reinforcement of standard infection control measures can be successful in containing outbreaks.”
“Several possible mechanisms for phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG) in silicon (Si) are evaluated. Float Zone (FZ) monocrystalline Si samples were intentionally contaminated with iron by ion implantation followed by a 1 h anneal at 900 degrees C to achieve a homogeneous iron distribution. Phosphorus gettering was then performed at different combinations of time and temperature. Depth-versus-concentration profiles of Fe, P, and O were measured by SIMS.

Since then, the 125 Mb sequence has revealed many

of its

Since then, the 125 Mb sequence has revealed many

of its evolutionary secrets. Through comparative analyses with other plant genomes, we know that the genome of A. thaliana, or better that of its ancestors, has undergone at least three whole genome duplications during the last 120 or so million years. The first duplication seems to have occurred at the dawn of dicot evolution, while the later duplications probably occurred < 70 million years ago (Ma). One of those younger genome-wide duplications might be linked to the K-T extinction. Following these duplication events, the ancestral A. TH-302 price thaliana genome was hugely rearranged and gene copies have been massively lost. During the last 10 million years of its evolution, almost half of its genome was lost due to hundreds of thousands GSK3235025 in vitro of small deletions. Here, we reconstruct plant genome evolution from the early angiosperm ancestor to the current A. thaliana genome, covering about 150 million years of evolution characterized by gene and genome duplications, genome rearrangements and genome reduction.”

corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.1M H(2)SO(4) in presence of starch (polysaccharide) was studied using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in the temperature range of 30-60 degrees C. Starch inhibits the corrosion rates of mild steel to a considerable extent; the maximum inhibition efficiency (%IE) being 66.21% at 30 degrees C in presence of starch concentration of 200 ppm. The effect of the addition of very small concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide on the corrosion inhibition behavior of starch was also studied. The IE of starch significantly improved in presence of both the surfactants. The effect of surfactants on the corrosion inhibition behavior of starch

appears to be synergistic in nature. Starch alone and in combination with surfactants is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm from the fit of the experimental data of all concentration and temperature studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the Androgen Receptor Antagonist libraries trend of IE with temperature and also the values E(a), Delta G(ads), and Q(ads) obtained. The results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization measurements are consistent with the results of the weight loss measurement. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 1558-1565, 2011″
“Gene clusters for the synthesis of secondary metabolites are a common feature of microbial genomes. Well-known examples include clusters for the synthesis of antibiotics in actinomycetes, and also for the synthesis of antibiotics and toxins in filamentous fungi.

Based on our own data utilizing this model, we hypothesize that t

Based on our own data utilizing this model, we hypothesize that the PVT represents a common node, but differentially regulates the sign- vs goal tracking response. We postulate that the PVT regulates sign-tracking behavior, or the attribution of incentive salience, via subcortical, dopamine-dependent DMH1 purchase mechanisms. In contrast, we propose that goal-tracking behavior, or the attribution of predictive value, is the product of “”top-down”" glutamatergic processing between the prelimbic cortex (PrL) and the PVT

Together, data from our laboratory and others support a role for the PVT in cue-motivated behaviors and suggest that it may be an important locus within the neural circuitry that goes awry in addiction and related disorders.”
“Aim: The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to provide in-depth understanding of the experience of Lebanese women living with breast cancer.

Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed

cancer in women worldwide. In Lebanon, a country of 4 million people, breast cancer is as well the most widespread type of cancer among Lebanese women. The meaning of cancer diagnosis, the meaning of childbearing and femininity all have cultural bases in Lebanon. The international literature lacks information on how Lebanese women live with breast cancer when compared with women of other cultures.

Method: The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 10 participants with a mean age of 51.3 years were chosen based on their actual knowledge of the phenomenon, Alvespimycin Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor and their readiness to share that knowledge. Data were collected between December 2007 and May 2008. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed based on the Utrecht School of Phenomenology.


Four major core themes describing the participants’ lived experience emerged from the interviews: Living with losses; living with guilt feeling; living with fears and uncertainty; Living with the need to know and to share that knowledge.

Conclusion: The experience of Lebanese women with breast cancer revealed distinctive themes not reported by other women from other cultures. The results of this study challenge health care providers and educators to be aware of the difficulties that Lebanese women are facing when they are living with Momelotinib in vitro breast cancer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Pathological gambling, alongside addictive and antisocial disorders, forms part of a broad psychopathological spectrum of externalizing disorders, which share an underlying genetic vulnerability. The shared externalizing propensity is a highly heritable, continuously varying trait. Disinhibitory personality traits such as impulsivity and novelty seeking (NS) function as indicators of this broad shared externalizing tendency, which may reflect, at the neurobiological level, variation in the reactivity of dopaminergic (DAergic) brain reward systems centered on the ventral striatum (VS).

Further research into alternative biomarkers to EGRac is also req

Further research into alternative biomarkers to EGRac is also required. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89 (suppl): 1960S-80S.”
“A 76-year-old man with a history of atrial septal defect repair underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation of typical atrial flutter. During electrophysiological study, incessant sharp potentials were recorded, originating from the ostium of the inferior vena cava (IVC), and dissociated

from atrial activity. During sinus rhythm, these potentials propagated to the atria and caused premature complexes when falling beyond the atrial refractory period. Electro-anatomical mapping revealed the presence of the earliest potential in the postero-lateral ostium of the IVC, propagating to the septal region. After RF isolation of the IVC, the patient has remained arrhythmia-free over a 5-year follow-up. (PACE 2010; e62-e64).”
“The Selonsertib Apoptosis inhibitor optical properties of bulk ZnO ion implanted with nitrogen ions, at an energy of 23 keV have been studied as a function of implantation fluence and electron beam (EB) annealing conditions. Nuclear reaction analysis and Raman results have revealed the implanted N concentration and its structural changes with respect to various nitrogen ion fluences. The optical properties of nitrogen implanted bulk ZnO were investigated by low temperature

photoluminescence measurements. An enhanced peak at 3.235 eV has been attributed to donor-accepter pair (DAP) emission involving the implanted N acceptor in ZnO. The emission near 3.3085 eV is attributed to a free electron to acceptor transition. AZD8931 purchase We also report a broad Combretastatin A4 cost band emission feature at similar to 3.09 eV in the nitrogen implanted

with 1-2 x 10(15) ions cm(-2) and EB annealed at 800-900 degrees C. This is assigned to a thermally activated nitrogen acceptor transition as it is unique only to nitrogen implanted samples. An ionization energy of 377 meV indicates that this line may correspond to a significantly less shallow acceptor level. In addition an increase in the intensity and dominance of this DAP line in nitrogen implanted samples over the other acceptor transitions was observed with increasing annealing time and temperatures. It is shown that EB annealing offers a method of enhanced nitrogen activation when compared to a more conventional furnace approach. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3380592]“
“Background: Mild vitamin B-12 deficiency is common among older adults, but evidence for setting dietary recommendations is limited because most studies have administered vitamin B-12 via nonoral routes or at doses several hundred times higher than current recommendations. Furthermore, different biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status have not been systematically reviewed.

Nonadherence was associated with patient attitudes about addictio

Nonadherence was associated with patient attitudes about addiction to analgesics and ability of analgesics to control pain. Conclusion. High pain intensity and nonadherence found in this study suggest that physicians should monitor older patients with chronic nonmalignant pain more closely and pay more attention to patients’ beliefs regarding analgesics to ensure better adherence to pharmacological therapy.”
“Fe(65-x)Mo14C15B6Erx bulk metallic glasses have been investigated STI571 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to obtain a clean surface the samples were fractured and analyzed in vacuum. The impact of the incorporation of Er on the local

atomic structure, the bonding, and the valence band density of states was examined. Our results show that Er addition modifies the B-C bonding environment, which is expressed in the appearance of an additional peak in the C 1s core level. It also affects the Fe 3s multiplet splitting, indicating changes in the valence band

electronic configuration. The change in the electronic structure is corroborated by examination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy AG14699 (XPS) valence band spectra.”
“Objective: Klotho has an important role in development of coronary artery (CAD) disease. A functional variant of klotho gene (kl-vs) has been found as an independent risk factor for early-onset occult coronary artery disease (CAD) in previous studies. The Frequency of this variant was not known in Iranian population. We have examined the allele frequency of the kl-vs variant in a case-control study in an Iranian population.

Methods and results: Genotyping for kl-vs variant was carried

out in N = 107 individuals including N = 54 cases and N = 53 control who all underwent coronary angiogram for CAD evaluation. Patients with > 50% stenosis in vessels considered as case groups (or CAD(+)) and patients with normal vessels (or CAD(-)) as controls. The frequency of kl-vs variant was determined in these patients using PCR-RFLP technique. None of the individual was carrying the kl-vs mutation in our samples. The frequency of kl-vs mutation was significantly different from previous studies in different Selleck Ricolinostat populations.

Conclusion: The kl-vs variant seems to be scare found in the Iranian population in comparison to other populations reported previously. Klotho gene might be a candidate gene of atherosclerosis in some populations but not in Iranian population. Further studies are required to examine the frequency of kl-vs variant in other populations from the Middle East.”
“Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported different results when using zoledronate to treat skeletal-related events (SREs) and bone pain in patients with metastatic bone disease (MBD), and few have looked at the risks and benefits of long-term use of the drug.