E , 1993 Water-balance of over-wintering beetles in relation to

E., 1993. Water-balance of over-wintering beetles in relation to strategies for cold tolerance. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 163, 1–4. Olsvik, P.A., Gundersen, P., Andersen, R.A., Zachariassen, K.E., 2000. Metal accumulation and metallothionein in two populations of brown trout, Salmo trutta, exposed

to different natural water environments during a run-off episode. Aquatic Toxicology 50, 301–316. Pedersen, S.A., Kristiansen, E., Andersen, R.A., Zachariassen, K.E., 2007. Isolation and preliminary characterization of a Cd-binding protein from Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C 145, 457–463. Pedersen, S.A., Kristiansen, E., Andersen, R.A., Zachariassen, K.E., 2008. Cadmium is deposited in the gut content PD-332991 of larvae of the beetle Tenebrio molitor and involves a Cd-binding protein of the low cysteine type. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C 148, 217–222. Pedersen, S.A., Zachariassen,

K.E., 2002. Sodium regulation during dehydration of a herbivorous and a carnivorous beetle from African http://www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1120212-jtp-74057.html dry savannah. Journal of Insect Physiology 48, 925–932. Somme, L., Zachariassen, K.E., 1981. Adaptations to low-temperature in high-altitude insects from Mount Kenya. Ecological Entomology 6, 199–204. Zachariassen, K.E., 1979. Mechanism of the cryoprotective effect of glycerol in beetles tolerant to freezing. Journal of Insect Physiology 25, 29–32. Zachariassen, K.E., 1980. The role of polyols and nucleating-agents in cold-hardy beetles. Journal of Comparative Physiology 140, 227–234. Zachariassen, K.E., 1982. Nucleating-agents in cold-hardy insects. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 73, 557–562. Zachariassen, K.E., 1985. Physiology of cold tolerance in insects. Physiological Reviews 65, 799–832. Zachariassen, K.E., 1989. Thermal adaptations to polar environments. In: Mercer, J.M. (Ed.), Thermal Physiology, Parvulin pp. 23–34. Zachariassen, K.E., 1991. Routes of transpiratory water-loss in a dry-habitat tenebrionid beetle. Journal of Experimental Biology 157, 425–437. Zachariassen, K.E., 1991. The water relations of overwintering insects. In: Lee, R.E.,

Denlinger, D. (Eds.), Insects at Low Temperature. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 47–63. Zachariassen, K.E., 1996. The water conserving physiological compromise of desert insects. European Journal of Entomology 93, 359–367. Zachariassen, K.E., Andersen, J., Kamau, J.M.Z., Maloiy, G.M.O., 1988. Water-loss in insects from arid and humid habitats in East-Africa. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 85, 81–93. Zachariassen, K.E., Andersen, J., Maloiy, G.M.O., Kamau, J.M.Z., 1987. Transpiratory water-loss and metabolism of beetles from arid areas in East-Africa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 86, 403–408. Zachariassen, K.E., Baust, J.G., Lee, R.E., 1982. A method for quantitative determination of ice nucleating-agents in insect hemolymph. Cryobiology 19, 180–184. Zachariassen, K.E., DeVries, A.L., Hunt, B., Kristiansen, E., 2002.

The modes and mechanisms of how this is actually achieved however

The modes and mechanisms of how this is actually achieved however, remain to be clarified [8 and 9]. Various factors, such as proximity effects [10], acid–base catalysis, near attack conformation [11], strain [12], dynamics [13], desolvation [14] etc. contribute to lowering

the activation barrier as compared to solution reactions. The individual effect of these factors is moderate and results in a rate acceleration < 104 fold. The only factor with major impact on catalysis is the electrostatic preorganization [15••], which can provide 107 to BMS-354825 mouse 1010 fold rate acceleration [16]. On the basis of the Marcus theory electrostatic preorganization can be

quantified by the reorganization energy (λ) [ 17]. This expresses the work of the protein while it responds to changing charge distribution of the reactant along the reaction pathway ( Figure 1). Although reorganization energy is the concerted effect of all enzyme dipoles, group contributions could be approximated (see CHIR-99021 ic50 Box 1). The reorganization energy (λ) was introduced by Marcus for electron transfer reactions [ 17] and establishes relationship between the reaction free energy (ΔG°) and the activation barrier (Δg‡). It can be approximated as: equation(1) Δgij‡≅(ΔGij0+λij)24λij It refers to intersection of free energy functionals of two states (i,j), corresponding to

reactants and products of an elementary enough reaction step. In enzymes reorganization energy expresses the effect of pre-oriented dipoles, which upon charging the TS costs significantly less to reorganize than corresponding solvent dipoles [ 45]. Reorganization energy decrease by enzymes originates in two factors ( Figure 4): (i) decreasing ΔG°, (ii) shifting the diabatic free energy functions as compared to each other. Reorganization energy is computed as the vertical difference between the free energies of the system at reactant and product equilibrium geometries on the diabatic product free energy curve (Figure 1): equation(2) λ=FPS(ξRS)−FPS(ξPS)λ=FPS(ξRS)−FPS(ξPS)where ξRS and ξPS are the values of the reaction coordinate at the reactant and product states and FPS(ξ) is the diabatic product state free energy function. Computing reorganization energy requires the reactant and product potential energy surfaces, which are available within the framework of the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) method [46]. According to Eqn (2) reorganization energy can be obtained by moving the system from the reactant to the product states using for example Free Energy Perturbation method and then the diabatic product state can be calculated by the Umbrella Sampling technique.

It seems that pilocarpine acting centrally activates both salivar

It seems that pilocarpine acting centrally activates both salivary gland secretion

and vasodilation.7, 8 and 10 Because salivation depends on secretory mechanisms and on the increase in blood flow to the glands,23 reduction in salivation may occur if one or both mechanisms are affected. The activation of α2-adrenoceptor with moxonidine reduces the salivary secretion and the vasodilation induced by pilocarpine.15 and 10 Therefore, it is possible that moxonidine inhibits pilocarpine-induced salivation at least partially by reducing salivary gland blood flow. Besides GSK269962 this, the vasoconstriction and the reduction of the blood flow to the salivary glands produced by the activation of the central α2-adrenoceptors is probably important for the sensation of dryness in the mouth by patients treated with moxonidine or the same type of drugs. In summary, the present results suggest that central cholinergic and α2-adrenergic mechanisms have opposite roles in the control of the salivary gland vascular resistance and blood flow. However, the increase in MAP, HR and mesenteric vascular resistance produced by the cholinergic activation in the forebrain is not affected by central α2-adrenoceptor activation, suggesting that different central mechanisms are activated by pilocarpine to produce the changes in the vascular resistance in different vascular beds. São Paulo State Foundation (FAPESP). None declared. Experimental protocols

were approved by the Animal Experimentation Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP). We would like to thank also Solvay Pharma PI3K Inhibitor Library ic50 and

Dr. P. Ernsberger for selleck chemicals llc the donation of moxonidine. This research was supported by public funding from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq/PRONEX). “
“Species of the genus Candida are considered commensal yeasts frequently isolated from the oral cavity of healthy patients. 1, 2 and 3 However, these microorganisms can act as opportunistic pathogens under certain circumstances, such as impairment of salivary glands, long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs and antibiotics, denture wear, and malignancies. 4 and 5Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, being present in around 20–50% of the cases of oral infections. 6 Recently, infections with species other than C. albicans, notably Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis have been increasingly described. 7, 8 and 9C. glabrata has become the second most frequently isolated commensal yeast from the oral cavity, 2, 7 and 8 and it is responsible for 15% of mucosal lesions. 2C. dubliniensis is a recently described species of the genus Candida 10 primarily associated with oral candidiasis 11 in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Denture stomatitis is a common superficial infection of the palate oral mucosa that affects more than 65% of denture wearers.

, 2007) The second phase is also associated with the development

, 2007). The second phase is also associated with the development of an inflammatory response triggered by many mediators such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α ( Chichorro et al., 2004), eicosanoids and NO ( Hunskaar and Hole, 1987; Moore et al., 1991), which prolongs the pain for the measurement remainder time ( Shin et al., 2011). At the doses tested (5, 10 and 20 μg venom/paw), the venom did not produce a significantly effect on nociception test. Although inflammatory Palbociclib order responses have been observed in the paw edema test, it is worth speculating that the venom in larger doses (>20 μg venom/paw) could induce painful response. In fact, 20 μg venom/paw was able to

induce hind-paw edema after 10 min of administration. Phoneutria nigriventer ( Costa et al., 2001; Zanchet and Cury, 2003) and Loxosceles gaucho ( Barbaro et al., 2010) venoms and peptides Nutlin-3a datasheet isolated from Scaptocosa raptoria venom ( Ferreira et al., 1998) also produced edema in rodents. These studies showed that pain and swelling caused by these spider venoms are related, as they involve the same molecular cascades. The cardiotoxic activity of A. paulensis venom and its two chromatographic fractions, LMMF and PF, was evaluated by two assays: in situ frog heart and frog heart ventricular slices.

In both, the venom induced cardiac arrest inhibited by atropine, suggesting the dependence of acetylcholine receptor activation. Only the LMMF was able to produce similar response, indicating the venom peptides are not responsible for it. The venom of the tarantula spider Lasiodora sp. caused a dose-dependent bradycardia, a transient cardiac arrest and rhythm disturbances on isolated rat heart, effects that were enhanced by anticholinesterase drugs, abolished by atropine, inhibited by an inhibitor of ACh vesicular transport, and not

modified by TTX, leading the suggestion that this venom induces see more the release of ACh from parasympathetic nerve terminals by activating TTX-resistant Na+-channels ( Kalapothakis et al., 2003). The dialyzed P. nigriventer venom produced positive inotropic and chronotropic effects in isolated rat heart that were inhibited by β-adrenergic antagonists and potentiated by atropine ( Costa et al., 1998). In a previous study, P. nigriventer whole venom induced negative chronotropic and inotropic effects on isolated guinea pig atria, these effects being abolished by atropine ( Vital-Brazil et al., 1988). While the sympathetic effect is explained by the presence of venom neurotoxins able to modulate Na+-channel activity, the parasympathetic response is probably mediated by the presence of biogenic amines in the venom, which were excluded by venom dialysis ( Costa et al., 1998). In the present study, it was shown that the parasympathetic-like response produced by A. paulensis venom is also due to low molecular mass compounds, possibly biogenic amines also or polyamines.

Endosonography allows evaluation of the tumor, its extent and sui

Endosonography allows evaluation of the tumor, its extent and suitability for endoscopic resection.4 Fanburg-Smith and colleagues5 proposed six histological criteria to determine possible malignancy. If none of these criteria are present, the tumor is benign, and additional treatment or follow-up is not considered

necessary by these authors,5 but no data exists to determine the cost effective approach in the management of GCT, and the risk/benefit of each approach must be considered case by case, involving the patient in decision making. The authors declare that no experiments were performed on humans or animals for this study. The authors declare that they have followed the protocols of their work center on the publication of patient data and that all the patients included in the study received sufficient information and gave their written informed consent to Crizotinib supplier participate in the study. The authors have obtained the written informed consent of the patients or subjects mentioned in the article. The corresponding BKM120 author is in possession of this document. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Uma doente com 60 anos de idade e história de melanoma maligno do seio maxilar esquerdo, diagnosticado 10 meses antes e tratado com cirurgia ablativa e radioterapia, foi admitida no serviço de urgência por fadiga incapacitante e epigastralgia

persistente. Negou vómitos, alteração do hábito intestinal, febre, suores noturnos, perda ponderal ou outras queixas. Ao exame físico identificou-se uma tumefação epigástrica elástica, indolor, com cerca de 12 cm de maior diâmetro, não se palpando hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia ou adenomegalias. A avaliação laboratorial revelou anemia com hemoglobina de 5 g/dl e perfil de doença crónica. A tomografia computorizada abdominal identificou uma tumefação heterogénea, localizada entre o pilar esquerdo do diafragma, a cauda do pâncreas, e a parede gástrica, e com Interleukin-2 receptor cerca de 12 cm de maior diâmetro. A esofagogastroduodenoscopia

observou no fundo e corpo gástricos múltiplas lesões polipóides ulceradas, de fundo com pigmentação escura, e com cerca de 1-4 cm de maior diâmetro (Figura 1 and Figura 2). O resultado anátomo-patológico das biopsias gástricas foi de melanoma maligno. A doente foi referenciada para uma unidade de cuidados paliativos, tendo falecido cerca de 3 meses depois. O envolvimento do estômago por metástases com origem num tumor extragástrico é incomum1. O melanoma maligno constitui uma das neoplasias malignas que mais frequentemente metastiza para o trato gastrointestinal2. Nestes doentes, a doença metastática pode manifestar-se logo na altura do diagnóstico ou apenas décadas após este, pelo que é necessário um razoável índice de suspeição para em face de queixas diversas confirmar o diagnóstico. Apesar do tratamento com ressecção cirúrgica, quimioterapia e/ou imunoterapia, o prognóstico continua a ser mau, com uma sobrevida mediana de 4-6 meses3.

Authors publishing in Marine Pollution Bulletin have the possibil

Authors publishing in Marine Pollution Bulletin have the possibility of depositing data at the digital library PANGAEA (http://www.pangaea.de) and linking this data with their online article on ScienceDirect. PANGAEA functions as an Open Access data repository, where authors (or data managers for large projects) can deposit their data and provide the relevant publication information.

This data is quality-controlled and archived SGI-1776 cell line by an editor in standard machine-readable formats to help improve re-usability and interoperability – adding value in a way that is very specific to this scientific domain. By establishing reciprocal links between PANGAEA and ScienceDirect, we are helping to improve the visibility and discoverability of both data sets

selleck chemicals llc and articles in order to make it easier for researchers to find primary data and to find articles using a specific data set. In addition, these links add valuable context to primary data by connecting them to published articles that may describe how the data was gathered and analyzed, how it can be interpreted, and whether there are any limitations to re-use. Taking the concept of connecting data and articles to a next level, PANGAEA and Elsevier have bundled forces to develop an application on ScienceDirect that integrates data into the article view, bringing the data even closer to the journal reader. The application is shown in the screenshot in Fig. 1. When an article is displayed on ScienceDirect, the application queries PANGAEA to find out which data sets have been used for the research described

in this paper. The locations Resveratrol of these data sets are displayed on a Google Map viewer, giving the reader a sense of the relevance of these data sets right away. The map is interactive, allowing the reader to explore the data by zooming out for context, zooming in for detail, etc. The data place-markers are linked to PANGAEA, providing easy access to the actual primary data sets. As an author of Marine Pollution Bulletin (as well as 140+ other participating journals), you are able to enrich your next publication to the benefit of your readers with this feature by depositing your data at PANGAEA. More information and instructions are available in the Guide for Authors at http://www.elsevier.com/journals/marine-pollution-bulletin/0025-326X/guide-for-authors#88100. In addition to the existing PANGAEA data-integration application, we are exploring additional ways to enrich the online article and add information to enable a better connection of oceanographic data and sampling, for example by linking cruise information or by exposing related data to interested readers. All these new features are made possible by a close collaboration with scientists and institutes that make us, as publishers, aware of the specific needs of the diverse scientific communities.

This extract has been chemically characterized to be rich in alka

This extract has been chemically characterized to be rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids and chlorophyll. The antioxidant properties of alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids and phytol (obtained from breakdown of chlorophyll) from different herbal sources are used as nutritional supplements and alternative medicines in oxidative stress induced disease models ([44]; Ningappa et al., 2006 and [36]). This popular Indian spice herb check details with immense health benefits has been shown to possess prolific

antioxidant activities. The leaf extract of Murraya koenigii has been shown to provide protection against oxidative stress induced in diabetes (Arulselvan et al., 2007). Aqueous extract of this leaf has been found to be effective in providing protection against cadmium and lead induced oxidative stress in rats ( [29] and [17]). A number of in vitro ( [34] and [35]) and in vivo ( [23] and [21]) studies confirmed the free radical scavenging

potential and antioxidant activities of leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii proposing its immediate ameliorative actions in oxidative stress models. Considering the rich source of antioxidants in Cu LE, we studied the dose-dependent effect of the extract on piroxicam Docetaxel manufacturer induced gastric oxidative stress and ulcer. Cu LE at 200 mg/kg BW dose maximally protected rat stomach against any oxidative damage mediated by 30 mg/kg BW dose of piroxicam. Our macroscopic and histopathological studies showed that almost no ulcerative damage occurred in rats when they were pre-treated with the antioxidant rich aqueous leaf extract. Collagen depletion, a marker for tissue disintegration and damage, was appreciably prevented on SPTLC1 pre-treatment of piroxicam-fed rats with aqueous curry leaf extract. This is well exhibited in the confocal images of the Sirius red stained gastric tissue sections used for collagen volume determination by Image J software. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes secreted as zymogen granules called pro-MMPs. These zymogen granules are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and pro-MMP 9 and MMP-9 have been indicated

as the primary factors in extracellular matrix degradation and epithelial cell denudation in NSAID(s) induced gastric ulcers [43]. Our present study also carried out gelatin zymography to determine whether pro-MMP 9 activity altered in piroxicam treatment and if the aqueous extract mediated protection was also through inhibition of matrix degrading enzyme. Quantitative determination of the changes in pro-MM9 activity revealed that aqueous curry leaf extract pre-treatment inhibited significantly enhanced pro-MMP9 activity in piroxicam administered animals. We observed increased accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls in gastric tissues of piroxicam treated rats indicating involvement of oxidative stress.

Despite the limited age range of our data, the immune parameters

Despite the limited age range of our data, the immune parameters showed some age-related changes within our sample; in particular, the CD8+ naïve and memory cells, CD3+ and CD4+ cell activation, and relative values for CD56dim cells counts all increased with age. The consensus of other authors notes that over the full adult range, aging is associated with a decline in T cell function (Ginaldi

et al., 1999, Makinodan et al., 1991 and Pawelec et al., 2002), with decreased pools of naive T and B cells (Utsuyama et al., 1992), increases in the number of memory and effector T and B cells (Linton et al., 1987), an accumulation of late differentiated effector T cells, and a diminished B cell production of immunoglobulins,

probably secondary to a reduced see more activity of T helper lymphocytes (Ben Yehuda et al., 1992 and Antonaci et al., 1987). An age-related up-regulation of HLA-DR+ and CD25+ (activation marker) on CD3+ lymphocytes has also been described in older subjects CX-5461 order (Rea et al., 1999). Early reports suggested that NK cell numbers and activity were unchanged with aging (Fiatarone et al., 1989), but more recent investigators have generally described an increase in the proportion of CD56dim (mature) NK cells, a decrease in the number and/or activity of NK cells, with a decreased affinity for target cells (Grubeck-Loebenstein et al., 2009, Nasrullah and Mazzeo, 1992, Miyaji et al., 1997 and Ruvakina et al., 1998), possibly accentuated in unfit subjects (Ross et al., 2004). The increase in the proportion of mature NK cells may contribute to the decline of NK cell function and thus the increased risk of infections and mortality in elderly individuals (Solana and Mariani, 2000). The numbers of both CD56brightCD16+ and CD56dimCD16+ mature subsets seem to be stable or

even increased in older individuals, whereas the CD56brightCD16− precursor subset is decreased (Beziat et al., 2011, Chidrawar et al., 2006 and Le Garff-Tavernier et al., 2010). A decline in the number of CD56bright NK cells in particular may impair immune regulation, as this cell population plays a central role in cytokine secretion during the innate immune response (Simpson, 2011). It remains uncertain how far adverse changes in immune function medroxyprogesterone can be reversed by an increase of physical activity, although the limited relationships we have found between immune parameters and either aerobic power or muscle strength suggest that the variations of fitness seen in a healthy but non-athletic elderly population have at most a limited impact upon immune function. Simpson (2011) suggested that regular exercise might conserve immune function by forcing T cells into the circulation, encouraging the apoptosis of memory T cells, and thus making “space” for a release of further naive T cells.

g De Fruyt et al , 2009, Hrebícková et al , 2002 and McCrae et a

g. De Fruyt et al., 2009, Hrebícková et al., 2002 and McCrae et al., 2005). This has led to them being empirically related to a cornucopia of concepts as well as used in mediation and moderation models of current behaviours, helping to define relationships and explain outcomes. In adolescence, personality Enzalutamide may even be a key mediator of individual differences in the course and treatment responses of youth with mental disorders that emerge at this period in development (Costello, Copeland, & Angold, 2011). However, on closer inspection, problems remain with personality measurement in adolescents. In comparison to adult research, studies with adolescents have found more cross loadings, and items that

do not load sufficiently on any factor. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PD-0325901.html Additionally, the studies demonstrate that items from the Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scales perform better, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness and Openness items have less reliability (e.g. Parker and Stumpf, 1998 and Sneed et al., 2002). The problems with factor replicability may be due to developmental changes that take place during this time; personality traits are still in flux throughout adolescence (McCrae et al., 2002) and the structure and coherence of the five factors vary at different ages (Soto, John, Gosling, & Potter, 2008). Therefore it is important to

determine if the precision of personality measurement can be maximised for use in behavioural and clinical studies in this age range. Item response theory (IRT) can be used to improve the measurement aminophylline of adolescent personality. The application of IRT allows scale psychometric properties to be revealed with greater precision than other multivariate methodologies; analysing item level information can provide insights into measurement reliability and enables a thorough evaluation of the internal construct validity. IRT provides information by checking the validity of the items and delineating poor performing indicators. It does this by estimating each individual item’s discrimination on the latent trait (the

a parameter) and difficulty within a population (the b parameter) ( Embretson & Reise, 2000). An item’s discrimination reflects how the probability of endorsing an item changes as the level of the underlying trait increases. Thus, highly discriminating items more strongly represent the latent trait. The item’s difficulty corresponds to the likelihood of an individual endorsing it given their level of the latent trait. An item is considered easy if most people endorse it and the difficulty rises as the likelihood of endorsing it decreases. Therefore some items may be easy to endorse even at relatively low levels of the latent trait. IRT also provides estimates of each scale and item’s total information function through total and item information curves (TICs and IICs).

Thrombolytic therapy was provided in about 5% of patients of the

Thrombolytic therapy was provided in about 5% of patients of the network compared with 0.4% of those in control hospitals. This means that use of rtPA in network hospitals was increased 10-fold. Safety data showed that administration of rtPA within the TEMPiS network is safe. The rate of symptomatic haemorrhage of 9% and in-hospital

mortality of 10% is in line with other safety data outside clinical trials [14], [15] and [16]. But effectiveness was not only shown in comparison with community hospitals but as well with stroke centres. Between 2003 and 2004, 170 patients received rtPA in the network hospitals and 132 patients in the two stroke centres. Baseline data of these patients were comparable. www.selleckchem.com/products/Roscovitine.html Mortality rates as well as good functional outcome after 6 months did not differ in patients treated in network community hospitals or in stroke centres [17]. Rapamycin Teleconsultation may not be limited to workstations in the hospital requiring the continuous presence of a stroke neurologist in the hospital since TEMPiS provides an immediate answer to stroke calls made from network hospitals and start of the video conference within 3 min. Since mobile network computers are increasingly

available, we investigated the quality of mobile versus stationary telemedical stroke consultation. Between June and August 2007 a total of 223 teleconsultations with video-examination were conducted. Significant differences were assessed for teleconsultants’ ratings of video and audio quality with better results for the hospital-based system and worse audio quality for the ratings from doctors in the local hospitals for the mobile

teleconsultations. acetylcholine However, the overall quality of the teleconsultations taking the patient perspective was not different and the clinical relevance of teleconsultations was rated high for both forms of teleconsultations. Therefore mobile teleconsultation using the available European mobile network technology provides good feasibility and stability. Whether a mobile or a hospital based solution is preferred may also depend on individual structures of networks and the frequency of teleconsultations. As during nighttimes the number of teleconsultations is lower [18], here the mobile solution may be favoured in order to reduce hospital nights of teleconsultants and costs of staffing [19]. Telemedic stroke care should provide more than just expert phone care or teleradiology but combine real-time video conference and electronic transmission of cerebral imaging data. Phone based stroke and rtPA care only have been shown to lead to a poorer outcome and higher mortality compared to patients treated in specialised stroke wards [20].