100 A total of 302 post-coronary artery bypass graft patients with depression were randomized to this intervention versus usual care. Intervention versus usual care patients had significantly greater improvement on mental health functioning (P=0.02) and were more likely to report a >50% decline on HAM-D
scores (50% vs. 29.6%), P<0.001) at 8-month follow-up compared with usual care patients.100 Davidson and colleagues tested a depression collaborative care model that gave patients a choice of starting with pharmacotherapy or problem-solving therapy (PST) to treat depression.146 Stepped care was provided based on physician supervision Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of case managers so that medications could be added to PST if patients had limited response to psychotherapy or medications could be changed, or PST added for patients not responding to the initial antidepressant medication trial. A total of 157 patients with depression persistently present 3 months after an acute coronary event were randomized and intervention patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical had significant improvements compared with usual care patients on the Beck Depression Inventory (P>0.005).146 These two collaborative depression care trials, like the three learn more trials completed in patients with depression and diabetes, demonstrate that this health services model is an effective way to expose cardiac patients with depression to evidence-based depression treatments
and to improve Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depressive outcomes in large primary care populations. An important question raised by the epidemiologic data is whether enhanced treatment of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depression could lead to decreased complications, and mortality in patients with CHD or diabetes. With the exception of the ENRICHD trial, all other trials are underpowered to answer this important question. The small treatment effect size in ENRICHD also limited the ability of researchers to answer this question. Future trials with as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical many as 5000 to 10
000 patients are likely needed with enhanced quality control over the depression intervention. However, regardless of the effect on complications and mortality, effective treatment of depression has been shown to improve Mephenoxalone symptom burden, functionality, quality of life, and overall adaptation to chronic medical illness. Conclusion Depression is a risk factor for development of chronic illnesses such as diabetes and CHD and adversely affects the course, complications and management of chronic medical illness. Both maladaptive health risk behaviors and psychobiological factors associated with depression may explain depression’s negative effect on outcomes of chronic illness. Most treatment studies have found that both evidence-based depression therapies and antidepressant medications are efficacious treatments in patients with depression and comorbid medical illness, and that collaborative care is an effective health services model to deliver these treatments to large primary care populations.