100 A total of 302 post-coronary artery bypass graft patients wit

100 A total of 302 post-coronary artery bypass graft patients with depression were randomized to this intervention versus usual care. Intervention versus usual care patients had significantly greater improvement on mental health functioning (P=0.02) and were more likely to report a >50% decline on HAM-D

scores (50% vs. 29.6%), P<0.001) at 8-month follow-up compared with usual care patients.100 Davidson and colleagues tested a depression collaborative care model that gave patients a choice of starting with pharmacotherapy or problem-solving therapy (PST) to treat depression.146 Stepped care was provided based on physician supervision Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of case managers so that medications could be added to PST if patients had limited response to psychotherapy or medications could be changed, or PST added for patients not responding to the initial antidepressant medication trial. A total of 157 patients with depression persistently present 3 months after an acute coronary event were randomized and intervention patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical had significant improvements compared with usual care patients on the Beck Depression Inventory (P>0.005).146 These two collaborative depression care trials, like the three learn more trials completed in patients with depression and diabetes, demonstrate that this health services model is an effective way to expose cardiac patients with depression to evidence-based depression treatments

and to improve Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depressive outcomes in large primary care populations. An important question raised by the epidemiologic data is whether enhanced treatment of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depression could lead to decreased complications, and mortality in patients with CHD or diabetes. With the exception of the ENRICHD trial, all other trials are underpowered to answer this important question. The small treatment effect size in ENRICHD also limited the ability of researchers to answer this question. Future trials with as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical many as 5000 to 10

000 patients are likely needed with enhanced quality control over the depression intervention. However, regardless of the effect on complications and mortality, effective treatment of depression has been shown to improve Mephenoxalone symptom burden, functionality, quality of life, and overall adaptation to chronic medical illness. Conclusion Depression is a risk factor for development of chronic illnesses such as diabetes and CHD and adversely affects the course, complications and management of chronic medical illness. Both maladaptive health risk behaviors and psychobiological factors associated with depression may explain depression’s negative effect on outcomes of chronic illness. Most treatment studies have found that both evidence-based depression therapies and antidepressant medications are efficacious treatments in patients with depression and comorbid medical illness, and that collaborative care is an effective health services model to deliver these treatments to large primary care populations.

The “late” developmental model attempts to explain the onset in t

The “late” developmental model attempts to explain the onset in the second decade of life by invoking brain maturational events in adolescence, but, of course, cases with

such an onset remain a minority. People develop schizophrenia throughout adult life into old age, and late-onset patients show relatively normal premorbid adjustment.137 Furthermore, according to Howard et al,138 the relatives of late-onset psychosis cases seem to carry less genetic loading for schizophrenia and are at higher risk for affective disorders. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical A potential explanation is that patients with late-onset schizophrenia may in fact have a different illness, possibly with etiological Selleckchem PDE inhibitor factors in common with affective psychosis; a second possibility Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is that the symptoms may arise from brain degeneration.139 What factors influence the age of onset, of psychosis? Onset is generally earlier in males than in females.137,140 Furthermore, those patients with a family history of schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tend to have an earlier

age of onset than cases with less genetic risk,141,142 regardless of their gender.143 As noted earlier, OCs may also be associated with early onset,36,-45,144 as are other indicators of aberrant neurodevelopment, such as premorbid cognitive and behavioral deficits, minor physical anomalies, smaller brains, and larger cerebral ventricles.145,146 One may conclude that the role of neurodevelopmental impairment is most, marked in early-onset schizophrenia, but it becomes progressively less obvious in patients with increasing age of onset. In other words, only a proportion of the variance in liability to schizophrenia can

be attributed to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical impaired brain development. Is schizophrenia more than a brain disorder? The role of social Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical risk factors The view that, schizophrenia, is simply a brain disorder remained unchallenged from the late 1970s to the late 1990s. Thus, the simple neurodevelopmental model implied that, schizophrenic symptoms are simply a consequence of the development of aberrant neural networks.147 However, there is increasingly robust evidence that social risk factors play a crucial role in the development, of schizophrenia (Figure 2).30 However, for most social risk factors, while there is a clear association with schizophrenia, the direction of causality has not been demonstrated. TCL Figure 2. The cascade of increasingly abnormal function that culminates in the onset of full-blown psychosis, including the main risk factors for psychosis over life.30 Could an adverse upbringing convey higher risk for schizophrenia? In the British 1946 Birth Cohort, those 4-year-old children rated as having a poor mother-child relationship had a 6-fold increase in risk for schizophrenia, later in life.

This contrast agent was fabricated by encapsulating indocyanine g

This contrast agent was fabricated by encapsulating indocyanine green (ICG) in PLGA MB. The technical feasibility of concurrent structural and functional imaging was demonstrated through a series of tests in which an aqueous suspension of ICG-PLGA MB was injected into a transparent tube embedded in an Intralipid phantom at different flow rates and concentrations. Concurrent fluorescence imaging and B-mode ultrasound imaging Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical successfully captured the changes of microbubble flow rate and concentration with high linearity and accuracy. One potential application of the proposed ICG-PLGA MB would be for the identification and characterization of peritumoral neovasculature. Enhanced coregistration between tumor structural

and functional boundaries could be achieved using US-guided near-infrared diffuse optical tomography. In a similar manner, photoacoustic imaging applications also will be implemented, for example, NP exhibiting a near-infrared (NIR) absorption can be prepared by incorporation of ICG Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical into PLGA [61, 62]. These NPs were biocompatible in vitro and had a high NIR dye

encapsulation efficiency (>98%) and two different size fractions were obtained of ~640nm and ~390nm. Cytotoxicity studies indicated no changes in metabolic activity, proliferation, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or membrane integrity. Their high optical absorption at ~800nm in combination with absence of cytotoxicity qualifies the ICG-PLGA particles as promising candidates for degradable photoacoustic contrast agents in future studies. Other nanoparticles Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in development include composite PLGA-magnetic particles for simultaneous drug NF-��B assay delivery and imaging [82], and these might also be applied to gene delivery in future applications. These magnetic nanoparticles were embedded in PLGA matrices (PLGA-MNP) to achieve a dual-drug delivery and imaging system and were capable of encapsulating both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs in a 2:1 ratio while retaining favorable biocompatibility and

cellular uptake properties. For targeted delivery of drugs, targeting ligands such as Herceptin were tested, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical demonstrating enhanced cellular uptake. Also, magnetic resonance below imaging was used to show improved contrast by PLGA-MNP compared to commercial contrast agents due to higher T2 relaxivity with a blood circulation half-life of ~47min in a rat model. These PLGA-based matrices may be applied to both imaging and adapted to achieve successful gene delivery. 5. Conclusions PLGA and other nanoparticle delivery systems in general have distinct advantages for gene delivery, such as protecting DNA from degradation and enhancing complex stability. PLGA-based NPs can penetrate deeply into tissues through fine capillaries and are generally taken up efficiently by cells. This allows efficient delivery and accumulation of therapeutic agents, such as conventional medicines, vaccine antigens, proteins, and genes, to target sites (tissues or organs) in the body.

100 Periods of work shorter than 12 hours in a row are beneficial

100 Periods of work shorter than 12 hours in a row are beneficial; beginning work each evening a couple of hours later during a shift of several days of night work can be helpful (so that workers slowly adapt to the night work), but it is not very practical, although it has been used for railroad drivers. Light treatment efficacy is well demonstrated in experimental studies, with

the treated persons showing a shift in their temperature circadian buy INNO-406 rhythm that was not obtained in controls102; bright light also improves nocturnal mental performance independently of its effect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on synchronization.103 Unfortunately, many work places are only dimly lit at night. Melatonin is of little utility, both in terms of improving sleep quality and mood104 (melatonin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is not available on the market in some countries, while in other countries, it can be found in health food stores, in formulations of a quality that cannot be guaranteed). Hypnotics are probably more efficacious, as far as the subjective quality of sleep is considered. However, since most persons working night shifts have such a schedule during months, even years, hypnotics should not be prescribed to them if the prescriber follows the guideline recommendations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to limit the prescription to a few weeks only, because of

the risk of dependence. Multimodal approaches with scheduled bright light and darkness, sunglasses, and melatonin have been Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical proposed to improve adaptation to shift work.105 Sleep phase shift syndromes The two situations of delayed or enhanced sleep phase syndromes are extremes where the circadian clock is locked to earlier or later astronomical time than socially well accepted. In the sleep delay syndrome, persons prefer to go to sleep very Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical late at night, for example after 2 or 3 am and sleep late in the morning. In the sleep advance syndrome, the opposite situation is found. These

conditions can be familial and hereditary.78,106 Subjects with the delayed sleep phase syndrome might also show a particular personality profile, with manifestations from the domains of anxiety and mood disorders, as well as hypochondriasis.107 Techniques have been proposed to treat the extreme cases of sleep phase syndromes by modification of lighting,108 of sleeping schedule, or by a progressive shift of the time to go to sleep of 2 much hours each night.109 Mood disorders It was observed more than a hundred years ago that a few mood disorder patients have regular (periodic) recurrences of depression (with or without episodes of mania). For more than 50 years, hypotheses have been proposed for the biological mechanisms of mood disorders, but none is as yet accepted. This is in contrast to the fact that many causes of depression are well recognized, such as loss and grief, endocrine disorders (Cushing’s disorder, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, etc), differences in season, and the menstrual cycle.

Acute renal injury (ARI) and blood transfusion requirements There

Acute renal injury (ARI) and blood transfusion requirements There were more ARI in the coagulopathic group 25 (25.3%) patients than in the non coagulopathic group 7 (8.4%) (p=0.003). This is comparable with other studies done outside Uganda on ATC [6,7]. However the exact relationship between ARI and ATC needs to be further investigated. There was no strong association between blood transfusion requirements

and coagulopathy. A total of 41(41.4%) of patients with coagulopathy were transfused and 27 (32.5%) of patients without coagulopathy were transfused with different blood products (p=0.179). Increased transfusion requirements in major trauma patients were probably due to two events; blood loss at the scene (event) and continue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical loss secondary to coagulopathy. Lack of significant difference in our study could be because of non compliance to standard

protocol as far as blood transfusions practices is concerned in our setting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical because in part there is frequently inadequate supply of blood during the day but more so at night. Mortality The overall mortality was 38(20.9%), this is higher mortality than what has been reported in developed world. Kirya reported a mortality of 39(26%) among major trauma patients in a study of outcome of major trauma patients at Mulago hospital 10 years ago [24]. Other studies reported an overall mortality among major trauma patients ranging from 15% to 20%, however Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these studies where done in high resourced trauma centres [6,10,11]. The mortality was more in the coagulopathic group 29(29.3%) than in the non coagulopathic group 9(12.2%) P=0.002, this is comparable with other studies [6,10,11]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In this study, coagulopathy was a strong predictor of mortality in major trauma patients (IRR 2.7 95% CI 1.3 – 5.7, p = 0.001) and a predictor of morbidity (longer length of

stay). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves suggest Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a significant difference in AZD9291 ic50 probability of survival between patients with elevated PTT and those with normal (p=0.001). Most deaths resulting from elevated PTT occur early in the hospital stay, with the probability of survival paralleling between the two groups as time goes on. Thus PTT was a strong predictor of outcome than PT. Multiple regressions showed PTT, systolic BP, GCS were the variables that influenced outcome the most. The ability to determine whether the trauma patient at admission all is coagulopathic or not is a single most important predictor of outcome. This is comparable with other studies on ATC [6,7,10]. This study was not without limitations; perhaps additional variables such as INR (International Normalized Ratio), temperature (to detect hypothermia), metabolic acidosis and fibrin break down products would have added valuable information to ascertain coagulopathy. So is the lack of blood products that is encountered often times in the late night hours we did not catergorise which patient came at night or during the day.

The same Annier CPR simulated dummies were used in the test Stat

The same Annier CPR simulated dummies were used in the test. Statistical processing The SPSS15.0 GX15-070 software system was used in data processing. The measured materials were expressed with x- ± s, and analyzed by t Test; the calculated materials were tested by χ2, and the influence factors were analyzed by multi-factor Logistic repression method, and P<0.05 referred to the distinct

difference in statistics. Results According to the testing indexes of compression depth, frequency and released pressure between compressions, 86.4% of the medical volunteers met the standard requirements of performance, and only 31.9% of the medical workers in the compared group could Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical meet the standard requirements of performance. In terms of tested unilateral indexes, the pass rate of volunteers was much higher

than that of ordinary medical workers, as could be shown in Table Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ​Table11. Table 1 Comparison of Two Groups in Performance Qualities There were no distinct differences between the two groups in the average number of practical compression per minute. Compared with that of ordinary medical workers, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the time of ventilation used by the volunteers was shorter. There was no difference between the two groups in the total time used in 5 CPR, which were 118.4±18.5s and 116.0±5.4s. There was no distinct difference between the two groups in the number of practical compression per minute, as could be shown in Table ​Table22. Table 2 Comparison of Number of Practical Compression Per Minute & Time Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of Compression and Ventilation (x- ± s) Note: Compared with those ordinary medical workers/

doctors t=4.41, *P<0.05 The factors which could influence CPR performance were given parameters, including gender (male=0, female=1) and age (≤30y=0, 31y~45y=1, ≥46y=2); proper hand skill, posture and position, and attending repeating standard training were given 0, and on the contrary they were given 1.The tested results of multi-factor parameters were put into Logistic Repression Model and analyzed. The results showed that such factors as the hand skill, posture of compression and repeating training had clear relationship with CPR performance qualities, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as could be shown in Table ​Table33. Table 3 Logistic Repression Analysis of CPR Performance already Discussion CPR is one of the most important emergency techniques. Proper, immediate and effective CPR is the key to resuscitation, and it should be popularized as an important item in public health care. The emergency work is very important in meetings, ceremonies, sports games and so on. Before Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival was held, the medical volunteers were experienced repeating trainings of emergency theories and techniques for six months. The study selected 52 medical volunteers at random and tested their CPR performance, and compared them with those of ordinary medical workers who had been working in emergency department in 3 hospitals of Taian.

This has

been addressed by blockade studies (ie, focused

This has

been addressed by blockade studies (ie, focused irradiation or genetic manipulation), which demonstrate that neurogenesis is required for the actions of antidepressants in certain behavioral models,42,45,46 although there are exceptions.47,48 Ablation of glia in the PFC decreases sucrose consumption, a measure of anhedonia, indicating a requirement for glial function in this model.49 Decreased PFC dendrite arborization in response to stress is also correlated with a reduction in attention set shifting, a PFC-dependent behavior.50 These studies demonstrate a causal and/or correlative relationship between cell Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical number and complexity with behavior. Importance of life stress/trauma: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical gene-environment interactions There is also evidence that exposure to traumatic or stressful life events can have a cumulative effect that increases susceptibility or vulnerability to mood disorders51 (see Figure 1). Interactions of stress and genetic factors have also been reported, most notably for lifetime stress and the serotonin (5-HT) transporter short allele polymorphism52; however, a recent meta-analysis suggests that additional studies of this polymorphism Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are required.53 Studies of genes that increase resilience to stress and mood disorders have also been conducted.54 Recent studies have also reported an interaction between early life stress or trauma

and neurotrophic factors (see below). Mechanisms underlying structural alterations and neuroprotection: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical gene-environment Interactions Cellular and structural alterations in response to stress, depression, and antidepressant medications could result from a number of different mechanisms that alter the proliferation, growth, survival, and function of neurons and glia. These include altered neurotrophic/growth factor support, excitotoxicity, inflammation/cy tokines, metabolic/vascular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical support, viral, and toxic insults. The influence of these factors and insults on cell function and survival could occur rapidly after a single major event or could occur gradually

over time with the accumulation of one or more insults, also referred to as allostatic load (Figure 1). 55 The effects of these cellular stressors and insults are also influenced by genetic factors that can either increase susceptibility to cellular damage, whatever or conversely decrease susceptibility and increase resilience and neuroprotection. This complex interaction of gene -environment interactions over the lifespan is thought to contribute to the heterogeneity of depression, other psychiatric illnesses, as well as treatment of these disorders. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors that underlie the structural alterations and that play a key role in neuroprotection will provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of depression.

2), inactivation of the cardiac sodium channel (Nav1 5), and acti

2), inactivation of the cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5), and activation of the voltagegated potassium channel (Kv7.1). The calmodulin genes represent an interesting and rare phenomenon in human biology. There are three distinct calmodulin genes with distinct loci (CALM1, Chr.14q32.11; CALM2, Chr.2p21; and CALM3, Chr.19q13.2-q13.3);

while they share 76% homology at the DNA nucleotide level, these three genes encode for an identical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical protein (Calmodulin) of 149 amino acids. All three genes are expressed in cardiac myocytes, with transcript expression levels highest for CALM3 followed by CALM2 and CALM1.32 In a subsequent cohort analysis involving 82 unrelated LQTS cases that remained genetically elusive following analysis of the major LQTS genes, calmodulin mutations were identified in two additional cases.32 These missense Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mutations localize to critical EF-hand calcium-binding motifs and reduce calmodulin’s calcium-binding affinity by GSK690693 seven-fold. All four calmodulin-positive cases exhibited the common cardiac features

of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias occurring very early in life (three of four during infancy), including frequent T-wave alternans (all cases), markedly prolonged QT intervals (QTc > 600 ms, all cases), and intermittent 2:1 AV block (3 of 4 patients). Ventricular fibrillation was often triggered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by adrenergic activation occurring either spontaneously or preceded by a short episode of torsade de pointes that was not pulse dependent. Additionally, all patients had some degree of neurodevelopmental delay ranging from mild delay in language development to severe cognitive or motor development. Seizures were observed in three cases. Multisystem Disorders Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Associated with Either Prolonged QT or QTU Intervals Ankyrin-B Syndrome (formerly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical LQT4) Originally labeled type 4 LQTS (LQT4), this disorder has been renamed more correctly as sick sinus syndrome with bradycardia,

or the “ankyrin-B syndrome.”33 The ANK2 gene encodes ankyrin-B protein, which is involved in anchoring the Na/K-ATPase, Na/Ca exchanger, and InsP3 receptor to specialized microdomains in the cardiomyocyte transverse tubules.33 Since the discovery of the first human ANK2 mutation identified in a large, multigenerational 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl French pedigree presenting with “atypical LQTS,”33 several loss-of-function ankyrin-B mutations have been identified in patients with various arrhythmia phenotypes, including bradycardia, sinus node dysfunction, delayed cardiac conduction/conduction block, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, AF, drug-induced LQTS, and exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia. Andersen-Tawil Syndrome (formerly LQT7) Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by a triad of clinical features including periodic paralysis, dysmorphic features, and ventricular arrhythmias.

Approaches to texture analysis are usually categorized into struc

Approaches to mTOR inhibitor texture analysis are usually categorized into structural, statistical, model-based,

and transform methods. Structural approaches Structural approaches6,8 represent texture by well-defined primitives (microtexture) and a hierarchy of spatial arrangements (macrotexture) of those primitives. To describe the texture, one must define the primitives and the placement rules. The choice of a primitive (from a set of primitives) and the probability of the chosen primitive to be placed at a particular location can be a function of location or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the primitives near the location. The advantage of the structural approach is that it provides a good symbolic description of the image; however, this property is more useful for texture synthesis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical than analysis tasks. The abstract descriptions can be ill defined for natural textures because of the variability of both micro- and macrostructure and no clear distinction between them. A powerful tool for structural texture analysis is provided by mathematical morphology.9,10 This may prove to be useful for bone image analysis, eg, for the detection of changes in bone microstructure. Statistical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical approaches In contrast to structural methods, statistical

approaches do not attempt to explicitly understand the hierarchical structure of the texture. Instead, they represent the texture indirectly by the nondeterministic properties that govern Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the distributions and relationships between the gray levels of an image. Methods

based on second-order statistics (ie, statistics given by pairs of pixels) have been shown to achieve higher discrimination rates than the power spectrum (transform-based) and structural methods11. Human texture Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical discrimination in terms of the statistical properties of texture is investigated in reference 12. Accordingly, the textures in gray-level images are discriminated spontaneously only if they differ in second-order moments. Equal second-order moments, but. different, third-order moments, require deliberate cognitive effort. This may be an indication that, for automatic processing, statistics up to the second order may be the most important.13 The most, popular second-order statistical features for texture analysis are derived from the so-called co-occurrence matrix.8 These have been demonstrated to feature a potential for effective nearly texture discrimination in biomedical images.1,14 Model-based approaches Model-based texture analysis15-20 using fractal and stochastic models attempts to interpret an image texture by use of a generative image model and a stochastic model, respectively. The parameters of the model are estimated and then used for image analysis. In practice, the computational complexity arising in the estimation of stochastic model parameters is the primary problem.

Capitalizing on a cardiovascular research study bank in Sweden, t

Capitalizing on a cardiovascular research study bank in Sweden, the researchers evaluated men aged 33 to 50 years with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measured in archived plasma. A nested Selleckchem ROCK inhibitor case-control design was employed, with three controls for each prostate cancer death. A single PSA reading at age 44 to 50 years was strongly predictive of prostate cancer death at a median follow-up of 27 years. Forty-four percent of deaths occurred in men at the 10th percentile of serum PSA level

(1.5 ng/mL). This is an important Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical study and is giving support to the notion of stratifying men for interval early detection testing based on initial PSA results. The importance of nadir PSA during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was investigated by Keto and colleagues.2 Men who were treated with ADT for biochemical recurrence from the SEARCH data base were studied (322 patients).

PSA nadir, the lowest level obtained during followup, was analyzed. During a median follow-up of 51 months, the nadir level correlated with castrationresistant prostate cancer Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (CRPC), development of metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Relative to men with undetectable Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical nadir, a PSA>0.2 ng/mL identified the greatest risk of progression. Although we often do not recognize it as an important marker, testosterone (T) in the setting of ADT truly is. Numerous studies have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical demonstrated better outcomes in men with lower and longer nadir T level compared with others on ADT. Pickles and Tyldesley3 studied T levels exceeding castration thresholds of 20, 32, and 50 ng/dL; 2290 men on continuous luteinizing

hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) therapy were assessed. The risk of breakthrough T was 26.8%, 6.6%, and 3.3%, respectively, per patient course of ADT. Predisposing factors included younger age and higher body mass index (BMI), but not baseline T. Crawford and associates4 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical looked at baseline T levels in men on continuous ADT from two large clinical trials; 1669 men were evaluated. There were 1159 men from a trial of fracture prevention with toremifene citrate, 80 mg (any indication for ADT), and 510 men from a trial of sipuleucel-T (metastatic CRPC). Both trials required serum T < 50 ng/mL at baseline; 18.3% had T > 20 ng/dL. BMI correlated with men with higher T levels, although this did not persist in the subset of men who underwent orchiectomy. Neither patient age nor duration whatever of ADT predicted men who had serum T > 20 ng/dL. With the increasing evidence that the historically established definition of castration (T < 50 ng/dL) may not be adequate in all men, these two presentations demonstrate that increasing use of serum T determination in men on ADT is warranted. van der Sluis and colleagues5 addressed the issue of what the true castrate level of T is in men following LHRH therapy or surgical castration.