p ) and that of a locally applied citalopram perfusion on dialysa

p.) and that of a locally applied citalopram perfusion on dialysate 5-HT levels in the vHi. These neurochemical changes correlated with behavioural data since,

in the FST, antidepressant-like activity of paroxetine as measured on swimming behaviour was potentiated by BDNF. These data suggest an interesting synergy between BDNF and SSRI on antidepressant-like activity. Furthermore, in both the OF and EPM paradigms BDNF induced an anxiogenic-like activity, whereas paroxetine prevented this effect. Finally, the neurochemical and behavioural effects of BDNF on the serotonergic system might occur at both pre- and post-synaptic levels since by using in-situ hybridization, we showed that TrkB-R mRNA was expressed in the hippocampus and the dorsal raphe click here nucleus in adult mice. Taken together the neurochemical and behavioural effects of BDNF suggest that these behavioural changes were mediated by increases in 5-HT neurotransmission in vHi. Thus a BDNF + SSRI combination may offer new alternatives to treat mood disorders.”
“Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), also known as optoacoustic tomography, is an emerging imaging modality that has great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In this note, we derive

a hybrid reconstruction formula that is mathematically exact and operates on a data function that is expressed in the temporal frequency and spatial domains. This formula explicitly reveals new insights into how the spatial frequency components of the

sought-after object function are determined by the temporal frequency components of the find more data function measured with 5-Fluoracil a circular or spherical measurement geometry in two-and three-dimensional implementations of PACT, respectively. The structure of the reconstruction formula is surprisingly simple compared with existing Fourier-domain reconstruction formulae. It also yields a straightforward numerical implementation that is robust and two orders of magnitude more computationally efficient than filtered backprojection algorithms.”
“Object. Although subdural electrodes are routinely used to map regional brain function, it is unknown if the presence of these implants hinders local cortical function. The authors used psychophysical methods to measure the effect of uncomplicated electrode implantation on local cortical function.\n\nMethods. Local field potentials were used to map receptive fields (RFs) for subdural electrodes that were unilaterally implanted on early visual cortex in 4 patients. After electrode implantation, patients did a task that required them to detect an orientation change in a flashing visual stimulus that was presented either inside the mapped RF or outside the RF in the diametrically opposite portion of the other hemifield. The size of the orientation change was varied to span a wide range of behavioral performance.

A large body of evidence from both human and animal studies now p

A large body of evidence from both human and animal studies now points to a relationship between circadian disorders and altered metabolic response, suggesting that circadian and metabolic regulatory networks are tightly connected. After a review of the current understanding of the molecular circadian core clock, we will discuss the hypothesis that clock genes themselves

link the core molecular clock and metabolic regulatory DNA Repair inhibitor networks. We propose that the nuclear receptor and core clock component Rev-erb-alpha behaves as a gatekeeper to timely coordinate the circadian metabolic response.”
“Trypanosomes are parasites that cycle between the insect host (procyclic form) and mammalian host (bloodstream form). These parasites lack conventional transcription regulation, including factors that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, they possess a stress response mechanism, the spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS) pathway. SLS elicits shutoff of spliced leader RNA (SL RNA) transcription by perturbing the binding of the transcription factor tSNAP42 to its cognate promoter, thus eliminating trans-splicing of all mRNAs. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in procyclic trypanosomes elicits changes in the transcriptome similar to those induced by conventional UPR found in other eukaryotes. The mechanism of

up-regulation under ER stress is dependent on differential stabilization of mRNAs. The transcriptome

changes are accompanied by ER dilation and elevation in the ER chaperone, BiP. PHA-739358 Prolonged ER stress induces SLS pathway. RNAi silencing of SEC63, LY294002 cost a factor that participates in protein translocation across the ER membrane, or SEC61, the translocation channel, also induces SLS. Silencing of these genes or prolonged ER stress led to programmed cell death (PCD), evident by exposure of phosphatidyl serine, DNA laddering, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as typical morphological changes observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ER stress response is also induced in the bloodstream form and if the stress persists it leads to SLS. We propose that prolonged ER stress induces SLS, which serves as a unique death pathway, replacing the conventional caspase-mediated PCD observed in higher eukaryotes.”
“Patient-reported outcomes are important for clinical practice and research, and should reflect what patients perceive as important. The objective of this study was to develop and preliminarily validate a brief, patient-derived, disease-specific tool, the pancreatic cancer disease impact (PACADI) score.\n\nThe development was performed in two phases. Forty-one patients with confirmed pancreatic cancer (PC) selected dimensions of health related to the impact of the disease.

Differences among native populations associated with source clima

Differences among native populations associated with source climates that are logical for survival, growth, and reproduction indicate that genetic variation across the landscape is adaptive and should be considered during restoration. Results were used to delineate seed transfer zones and population movement guidelines to ensure

GPCR Compound Library ic50 adapted plant materials for restoration activities.”
“T cell activation and differentiation is a complex process that has evolved beyond the two-signal model to a number of varied and opposing inputs that must be interpreted to make a cell fate decision. While stimulation through the TCR, costimulatory, and cytokine receptors is required, metabolic signaling has emerged not only as an activation signal, but also one that can influence and shape differentiation. Recent findings have revealed unappreciated roles for glucose, fatty acids, and salt in the function of many T cell subsets. In this review, we will highlight the latest advances in the burgeoning field of immunometabolism, focusing on how the menu of T cell fuels has expanded.”
“Polo-like kinase (PLK) proteins play critical roles in the control of cell cycle progression, either favoring or inhibiting cell proliferation, and in DNA damage response. selleckchem Although either overexpression or down-regulation of PLK proteins occurs frequently in various cancer types, no comprehensive analysis on their function in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has

been performed to date. In the present study, we define roles for PLK1, PLK2, PLK3, and PLK4 during hepatocarcinogenesis. Levels of PLK1, as assessed by means of real-time reverse-transcription

PCR and western blot analysis, were progressively increased from nonneoplastic see more surrounding liver tissues to HCC, reaching the highest expression in tumors with poorer outcome (as defined by the length of patients’ survival) compared with normal livers. In sharp contrast, PLK2, PLK3, and PLK4 messenger RNA and protein expression gradually declined from nontumorous liver to HCC, with the lowest levels being detected in HCC with shorter survival. In liver tumors, PLK2-4 down-regulation was paralleled by promoter hypermethylation and/or loss of heterozygosity at the PLK2-4 loci. Subsequent functional studies revealed that PLK1 inhibition led to suppression of cell growth in vitro, whereas opposite effects followed PLK2-4 silencing in HCC cell lines. In particular, suppression of PLK1 resulted in a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and in massive apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro regardless of p53 status. Conclusion: PLK1-4 proteins are aberrantly regulated and possess different roles in human HCC, with PLK1 acting as an oncogene and PLK2-4 being presumably tumor suppressor genes. Thus, therapeutic approaches aimed at inactivating PLK1 and/or reactivating PLK2-4 might be highly useful in the treatment of human liver cancer. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;51:857-868.


the behavior of mercury in the Arctic summertime


the behavior of mercury in the Arctic summertime is still poorly understood. Here we report the characteristics of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations through the central Arctic Ocean from July to September, 2012. The TGM concentrations varied considerably (from 0.15 ng/m(3) to 4.58 ng/m(3)), and displayed a normal distribution with an average of 1.23 +/- 0.61 ng/m(3). The highest frequency range was 1.0-1.5 ng/m(3), lower than previously reported background values in the Northern Hemisphere. Inhomogeneous distributions were observed over the Arctic Ocean due to the effect of sea ice melt and/or runoff. A lower level of TGM was found in July than MS-275 cell line in September, potentially because ocean emission was outweighed by chemical loss.”
“Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in the

U.S.A. The two most ON-01910 Cell Cycle inhibitor common NMSCs are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigmentation pathway genes with NMSC are not well characterized. There is a series of epidemiological studies that have tested these relationships, but there is no recent summary of these findings. To explain overarching trends, we undertook a systematic review of published studies. The summarized data support the concept that specific SNPs in the pigmentation pathway are of importance for the pathogenesis of NMSC. The SNPs with the most promising evidence include MC1R rs1805007(T) (Arg151Cys) and rs1805008(T) (Arg160Trp), and ASIPAH haplotype [rs4911414(T) and rs1015362(G)]. GSK2118436 research buy There are a few other SNPs found in TYR, OCA2 and

SLC45A2 that may show additional correlation after future research. With additional research there is potential for the translation of future findings to the clinic in the form of SNP screenings, where patients at high risk for NMSC can be identified beyond their phenotype by genotypically screening for predisposing SNPs.”
“Definition of the lineage of poorly differentiated neoplasms (PDNs) presenting as cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is important since many of these tumors are treatment-sensitive. Gene expression profiling and a molecular cancer classifier assay (MCCA) may provide a new method of diagnosis when standard pathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is unsuccessful. Thirty of 751 CUP patients (4 %) seen from 2000-2012 had PDNs without a definitive lineage diagnosed by histology or IHC (median 18 stains, range 9-46). Biopsies from these 30 patients had MCCA (92-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction mRNA) performed. Additional IHC, gene sequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridization for specific genetic alterations, and repeat biopsies were performed to support MCCA diagnoses, and clinical features correlated. Seven patients had MCCA performed initially and received site-specific therapy.

We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth co

We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 1114 years later. GW4869 We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height

and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all P < 0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.328.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all P < 0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.613.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early

adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of 3-MA clinical trial being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. Am J Phys Anthropol 148:451461, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“For women with hormone receptor-positive disease, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane, are more effective than tamoxifen in improving disease-free survival (DFS) when used initially or as adjuvant therapy following two to three years of tamoxifen or after tamoxifen has been completed. Demonstrating improvement in overall survival (OS), or breast cancer-associated mortality, however, requires long follow-up in

large numbers of patients. Subsequent crossover to another treatment following disease recurrence further confounds the assessment of OS benefit. DFS is the find more primary end point of most adjuvant trials, but the definition varies among trials, making cross-trial comparisons difficult. Importantly, DFS benefit does not always correlate with OS benefit. Distant metastasis is a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer-associated mortality, and AIs have shown greater efficacy over tamoxifen in reducing distant metastatic events and improving distant DFS (DDFS). A small proportion of initially treated early breast cancer patients may already have micrometastatic tumor deposits that can result in the rapid development of distant metastases.

A validated and consistent survey with 144 items was applied to t

A validated and consistent survey with 144 items was applied to the four groups before and after educational strategies. Critical reading with its subcomponents: interpretation, judgment and proposal were evaluated with 47, 49 and 48 items,

respectively. The case control studies, cohort studies, diagnostic test and clinical trial designs were evaluated. Nonparametric significance tests were performed to compare the groups and their results. A bias calculation was performed for each group. Results. The highest median was obtained by the three-stage groups (g1 and g2) and so were the medians in interpretation, judgment and proposal. The several research design results were higher in the same groups. Conclusions. An active educational strategy with three buy AZD2014 stages is superior to another with two stages in medical students. It is advisable to perform these activities in goal of better learning in our students.”
“The Critical Chain Scheduling and Buffer Management (CC/BM) methodology, proposed by Goldratt (Critical chain, 1997), introduced the concepts of feeding buffers, project buffers and resource buffers as well as the roadrunner mentality. This last concept, in which activities are started as soon as possible, was introduced in order to speed up projects by taking advantage of predecessors finishing early. Later on, the railway scheduling concept of never starting

activities earlier than planned was introduced as a way to increase the stability GW3965 chemical structure of the project, typically at the cost of an increase in the expected project makespan. In this paper, we will indicate a realistic situation in which railway scheduling improves both the stability and the expected project makespan over roadrunner scheduling.”
“Nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied in this study. Nonlinearities considered are due to large deflection of

carbon nanotubes (geometric nonlinearity) and nonlinear interlayer van der Waals forces between inner and outer tubes. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized to discretize the partial differential equations of motion in spatial domain, which resulted in a nonlinear set of algebraic equations of motion. The effect of nonlinearities, different end conditions, initial curvature, and stiffness JQ1 of the surrounding elastic medium, and vibrational modes on the nonlinear free vibration of DWCNTs is studied. Results show that it is possible to detect different vibration modes occurring at a single vibration frequency when CNTs vibrate in the out-of-phase vibration mode. Moreover, it is observed that boundary conditions have significant effect on the nonlinear natural frequencies of the DWCNT including multiple solutions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Complementary DNA (cDNA) and genomic DNA, including flanking regions of the chitinase gene (Fcchi-3) of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, were cloned and sequenced. Fcchi-3 was found to have 92.

It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts withi

It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with

apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.”
“Background: Echocardiography with speckle tracking is a novel, angle-independent find protocol technique for assessing global and regional cardiac function. Normal data on longitudinal strain have been reported for human fetuses. The aim of this study was to define circumferential left ventricular (LV) strain in a normal fetal population.\n\nMethods: Singleton fetuses between 17 and 42 weeks in gestational age with no adverse maternal health issues or fetal abnormalities were studied. Regional and averaged cardiac strain were measured using syngo Velocity Vector Imaging software.\n\nResults: Data from 81 fetuses were analyzed (mean gestational age, 29.2 +/- 5.7 weeks). Overall, average midventricular circumferential strain was 18.7 +/- 3.3%, LV longitudinal strain was 15.2 +/- 2.7%, and right ventricular longitudinal strain was 16.0 +/- 3.3%,

with no correlation with gestational age.\n\nConclusion: This is the first study to report normal fetal LV circumferential strain. These data may be useful as a reference for assessing fetal INCB024360 research buy cardiac function. The retrospective

study design and relatively low frame rates used in this study were important limitations. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2012;25:105-11.)”
“The cumacean fauna of New Zealand has been little studied, and recent collecting on the Chatham Rise and Challenger Plateau has yielded many new species and new genera. The first record of the family Ceratocumatidae is reported from New Zealand waters, Cimmerius sp. Within the Nannastacidae, there are only two previously described nannastacid species from New Zealand, Campylaspis rex Gerken & Ryder 2002 and Scherocumella pilgrimi ( Jones 1963). The recent collections yielded one new nannastacid genus, Aotearocumella n. gen., and 22 new nannastacid species, Aotearocumella acantha n. sp. A. echinoseta n. sp., A. watlingi n. sp., Atlantocuma confunda n. sp., Campylaspenis tangaroae https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html n. sp., Campylaspis apheles n. sp., C. bituberculata n. sp., C. hatchae n. sp., C. macrosulcata n. sp., C. microsulcata n. sp., C. millsae n. sp., C. normani n. sp., C. rufus n. sp., C. schnabelae n. sp., C. sculptaspinosa n. sp., C. zealandiaensis n. sp., C. zimmeri n. sp., Procampylaspis chathamensis n. sp., P. rhypakoceros n. sp., P. rhypakos n. sp., Schizocuma delicata n. sp., and Styloptocuma gordoni n. sp. In addition, a neotype for C. rex is designated.”
“We aim to define the characteristics of patients with hand injuries in the emergency department (ED), their management and operative findings.

Conclusions: Suicide attempters were distinguished from nonsu

\n\nConclusions: Suicide attempters were distinguished from nonsuicidal patients

by responses to angry and happy faces that may suggest increased sensitivity to others’ disapproval, Crenigacestat ic50 higher propensity to act on negative emotions, and reduced attention to mildly positive stimuli. These patterns of neural activity and cognitive processes may represent vulnerability markers of suicidal behavior in men with a history of depression.”
“The transthyretin-like (ttl) gene family is one of the largest conserved nematode-specific gene families, coding for it group of proteins with significant sequence similarity to transthyretins (TTR) and transthyretin-related proteins (TRP). In the present study, we investigated the ttl family in Ostertagia ostertagi (a nematode of the abomasum of cattle). Mining of expressed sequence tag (EST) databases revealed the presence of at least 18 ttl genes in O. ostertagi (Oo-ttl), most of which are constitutively transcribed from the free-living, third larval stage onwards. The full-length Adavosertib mw cDNA of one of these genes (Oo-ttl-1) was amplified and cloned for recombinant

expression. Western blot analysis using a specific antiserum showed that the native protein Oo-TTL-1 was highly present in the excretory-secretory (ES) products of adults of O. ostertagi. The protein was immunolocalized to the pseudocoelomic fluid of adult worms. A phylogenetic-bioinformatic analysis of all amino acid sequence data for TTL proteins from a range of strongylid nematodes showed that they could be divided into at least five different classes. This classification was based on conserved amino acids in the first TTL signature domain and the number and location of cysteine residues. The biological role(s) of LY3039478 the TTLs in nematode biology is still unclear. A theoretical three-dimensional model of Oo-TTL-1 indicated that it had a similar structure to TTRs (i.e., containing beta-sheets, arranged in a beta-sandwich).

In contrast to TTRs, competitive binding studies using recombinant Oo-TTL-1 indicated that the protein was devoid of any hydrophobic ligand-or thyroid hormone-binding properties. Finally, combinatorial analysis by double-stranded RNA interference of five ttl genes in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans did not reveal any visible phenotypes. More information on the transcription profile and tissue distribution of TTLs in nematodes is needed to provide new insights into the biological role of this gene family. (C) 2008 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND\n\nTreatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control and elimination. The current standard regimen of isoniazid for 9 months is efficacious but is limited by toxicity and low rates of treatment completion.

The influence of GO powders’ type and content on crystallization

The influence of GO powders’ type and content on crystallization behavior of PTT was investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). DSC results indicated that the overall crystallization rate of PTT was accelerated by well-dispersed GO material which acts as a heterogeneous nucleation agent, since the

Avrami parameter obtained is near 3. On the contrary, large GO aggregates which is in the minority will hinder the nucleation. Interestingly, large and well-defined PTT Adavosertib ic50 spherulites instead of tremendous stunted spherulites were observed from POM, which means only a small portion of GO powders was acted as nucleation agent. Meanwhile, GO powders had no effect on PTT spherulites growth rate. In addition, the band spacing of PTT spherulites became weaker and wider with increasing GO content. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40332.”
“Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B (WNT10B)

may play an important role in inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes in vitro and impairing adipose development in vivo. In this study, based on DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods, we attempted to characterize the associations between common genetic polymorphisms in WNT10B and growth traits of 435 female cattle from three breeds (Jiaxian. Qinchuan and Luxi cattle). The results indicated that g.220A>G was in the intron 1, and g.1617C>T, g.3980G>T, g.4711G>C were in the coding selleck kinase inhibitor region. At the g.3980G>T locus, Jiaxian cattle individuals with genotype

TT had greater body length than those with genotypes GG and GT (P < 0.05). At the g.220A>G locus, Qinchuan cattle individuals with genotype GG had greater growth traits than those with genotype AA and AG (P < 0.05 or P<0.01). These statistical results showed that the WNT10B gene might be a potential candidate gene for marker-assisted selection (MAS). (C) 2012 Published Navitoclax by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Background: Objective was to determine whether fear for external cephalic version (ECV) and depression are associated with the success rate of ECV in women with a breech presentation at term.\n\nMethods: Prospective study conducted in the Catharina Hospital Eindhoven between October 2007 and May 2012. Participants fulfilled The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) questionnaire and expressed their degree of fear on a visual analogue scale from one to ten before ECV. Obstetric factors were evaluated as well. Primary outcome was the relation between psychological factors (fear for ECV and depression EDS scores) and ECV success rate. Secondary outcome was a possible relation between fear for ECV and increased abdominal muscle tension.\n\nResults: The overall success rate was 55% and was significantly lower (p < 0.

An extracellular protease was purified by chromatography, and its

An extracellular protease was purified by chromatography, and its effects on degrading purified nematode cuticle and killing living nematodes were confirmed experimentally. Characterization of this purified protease revealed that the application of phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, an inhibitor of serine proteases, could completely abolish its proteolytic activity. The results from N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed no similarity with any known serine protease in S. maltophilia, suggesting a novel virulence serine protease www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html was obtained. Our study is the first to show the

nematocidal activity of S. maltophilia, and we identified a novel serine protease as an important pathogenicity factor.”
“Sphingomyelin was isolated from cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana using QAE-Sephadex A25, Florisil and Iatrobeads column chromatographies. The https://www.selleckchem.com/products/etomoxir-na-salt.html chemical structure was identified using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The ceramide moiety of sphingomyelin consisted of stearic, arachidic, and behenic acids as fatty acids, and hexadeca-4- and heptadeca-4-sphingenines as sphingoids. By comparative analysis, the ceramide component of Artemia sphingomyelin appears unique in invertebrates and vertebrates. Biological

functions of sphingomyelin have largely been investigated using mammalian-derived sphingomyelin. In mammals, a wide variety of molecular species of sphingomyelins have been reported, especially derived from nerve tissue, while the lower animal Artemia contains this unusual sphingomyelin perhaps because of having a much simpler nervous system. The purified unusual sphingomyelin derived from Artemia franciscana might be a very useful tool FRAX597 purchase in elucidating the functions

and mechanisms of action of this mediator.”
“Successful cryopreservation of Q. robur germplasm as plumules (i.e. shoot apical meristems of embryos) is described in this paper. After excision from the recalcitrant seeds and preliminary storage in 0.5 M sucrose solution (18 h), the plumules were subjected to cryoprotection (in 0.75 M sucrose, followed by 1.0 M sucrose and 1.5 M glycerol solutions), and next to desiccation (over silica gel or in nitrogen gas) and cooling (in slush at -210 degrees C or in vials filled with liquid nitrogen, LN, -196 degrees C), and were then cryostored for 24 h. High percentage of survival was obtained after cryostorage (21-67%, depending on pretreatment, assessed in vitro by greening plumules that increased in size). Desiccation of plumules over silica gel resulted in significantly higher survival after cryopreservation (58%) in comparison with desiccation in nitrogen gas (29%), with regrowth (shoots with leaves) 5-18%.