Derivative of TGA thermogram was used to determine %hydrophilicit

Derivative of TGA thermogram was used to determine %hydrophilicity and %hydrophobicity in the grafted and ungrafted copolymers. The SEM morphology revealed porous layers with crispy structure that were most likely due to the presence of poly(lactide) chains. At lower content of poly(lactide) moiety, grafted copolymers showed non-Fickian diffusion release rate, whereas Fickian diffusion release rate at higher content of poly(lactide) was observed. The increase of poly(lactide) content (i.e., larger %hydrophobicity) in the copolymer increased the drug-sustainability, due to the consistent but porous amphiphilic degradable structures that allow controllable

release of drug in time interval. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 840-848, 2011″
“In addition to the decay of magnetization with

NVP-HSP990 solubility dmso time that occurs in scalar processes, in vector processes the magnetization must also rotate toward the easy axis. In this model, each hysteron is characterized by a critical surface. The energy of the hysteron selleck is proportional to the size of the difference between the applied field and the particular point on the critical surface. An energy landscape is obtained by plotting the size of this difference as a function of magnetization angle. The equilibrium state is one in which the hysterons lie in the potential wells with a density given by Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics at room temperature. The logarithm of the time constant of the approach to equilibrium for a particular hysteron is given by the ratio of the barrier energy to the product of the absolute temperature and Boltzmann’s constant. Rapamycin This barrier energy is

obtained by the difference of the nearest maximum to the well depth. The overall behavior is the sum of this effect for all the hysterons. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565412]“
“The major cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We have been using evolutionary comparisons to trace (i) the origin(s) of HIV-1 and (ii) the origin(s) of AIDS. The closest relatives of HIV-1 are simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting wild-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in west central Africa. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed the origins of HIV-1: chimpanzees were the original hosts of this clade of viruses; four lineages of HIV-1 have arisen by independent cross-species transmissions to humans and one or two of those transmissions may have been via gorillas. However, SIVs are primarily monkey viruses: more than 40 species of African monkeys are infected with their own, species-specific, SIV and in at least some host species, the infection seems non-pathogenic. Chimpanzees acquired from monkeys two distinct forms of SIVs that recombined to produce a virus with a unique genome structure.

The predictive accuracy of cervical length for preterm delivery w

The predictive accuracy of cervical length for preterm delivery was analyzed using both fixed thresholds and outcome-specific thresholds, which are associated with a detection rate of 90%, false-positive rate of 10%, or the inflexion point of the receiver operator characteristic curve.

RESULTS:

Between 2007 and 2012, 1,077 women presented with preterm labor and met the study criteria. The correlation between cervical length and the time interval to delivery was significant but weak (r=0.293, P<.001). Cervical length was independently associated with the risk of preterm delivery at less than 37, 35, and 32 weeks of gestation and within 14 and 7 days from presentation (a 4-7% decrease in the risk for each additional millimeter of cervical length) as well as with the time interval between presentation selleck chemicals and delivery (each additional 2 mm was associated with an increase of 1 day). Overall, the accuracy of cervical length in predicting preterm delivery was relatively poor.

CONCLUSION: Although cervical length is an independent predictor of preterm

delivery in women with preterrn labor, its predictive accuracy as a single measure is relatively limited.”
“Background: The mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to identify the tibiofemoral alignment in the lateral compartment selleckchem of the knee for three variations of a one-limb landing in noncontact sports activities: the safe, provocative, and exaggerated provocative positions. These positions were chosen on the basis of a previous study that measured the average joint angles of the limb at the point of ground contact for athletes who landed without injury (safe) and those who sustained an anterior cruciate ligament injury (provocative). It was hypothesized that,

in the provocative positions, altered tibiofemoral alignment predisposes the knee to possible subluxation, potentially leading to an anterior cruciate ligament injury.

Methods: Magnetic resonance see more images were acquired for a single knee in twenty-five noninjured athletes for the three landing positions. The angle between the posterior tibial slope and the femur along with three distances (from the tibiofemoral point of contact to [1] the femoral sulcus point, [2] the posterior tibial point, and [3] the most anterior point of the circular posterior aspect of the condyle) were measured for each acquisition.

Results: The tibial slope relative to the femur was directed significantly more inferior to superior in the provocative and exaggerated positions than in the safe landing position.

This study examined the frequency of acute stroke and the factors

This study examined the frequency of acute stroke and the factors associated with complications of stroke in India. In this prospective multicenter study, running from March 2008 to September 2009, 6 hospitals collected information on complications of first-ever stroke during admission. Complications were defined in accordance with standard criteria. Outcome at 30 days poststroke was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale. Stroke characteristics, length of hospital stay, and stroke severity https://www.selleckchem.com/products/wnt-c59-c59.html (based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) were documented. Hematologic (ie, hemoglobin)

and biochemical (ie, total proteins and albumin) parameters also were obtained. A total of 449 patients out of the recruited 476 completed follow-up. The mean age was 58.1 +/-

13.7 years (range, 16-96 years), and the majority were men (n=282; 62.8%). The mean National Institutes of Stroke Scale score was 10.2 +/- 5.3. Overall, 206 patients (45.9%) experienced complications during admission. In the logistic regression analysis, limb weakness (odds ratio [OR], 0.12; CA3 research buy 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.67; P=.01), anemia (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.81; P=.01), length of hospital stay (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94; P<.0001), and stroke severity (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10-0.72; P=.01) were the variables associated with complications. Such complications as urinary tract infection (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.78; P=.01), chest infection (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.12-2.93; P=.02), bedsores (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.02-12.08; P=.05), other pain (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.49; P<.0001), and depression (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30-3.80; P<.01) were associated with poor outcome. Our

study shows high rates of complication in acute stroke. Limb weakness, stroke severity, length of hospital stay, and anemia were the factors associated with complications. Other complications, such as urinary tract infection, chest infection, bedsores, other pain, and depression, can lead to poor outcome.”
“The learn more aim of the present study was to assess whether elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, as an objective marker of heart failure, is a predictor of subsequent thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) during oral anticoagulant therapy. This was a post hoc analysis of a single-center, prospective, observational study. Consecutive patients with AF (261 patients, 74 +/- 9 years old, 153 paroxysmal AF) treated with warfarin were included for the analysis. BNP level at baseline examination was measured to assess the relationship of this parameter with subsequent thromboembolic events. BNP levels at the time of entry were 161 +/- 188 (5-1,500, median 105) pg/ml. During an average follow-up time of 762 +/- 220 (median 742) days, nine (1.8%/year) thromboembolic events occurred.

0 <= x <= 1 0, prepared by solid state reaction in air All

0 <= x <= 1.0, prepared by solid state reaction in air. All samples show the ORT-2 orthorhombic structure that suppresses the Jahn-Teller distortion, thus favoring a ferromagnetic (FM) superexchange interaction between Mn3+-O-Mn3+. For x = 0.0 the oxygen excess (y approximate to 0.09) produces vacancies in the

La and Mn sites and generates a fraction around 18% of Mn4+ ions and 82% of the usual Mn3+ ions, with possible double-exchange interaction between them. The Fe doping in this system is known to produce only stable Fe3+ ions. We find an evolution from a fairly strong FM phase with a Curie temperature T-C similar to 160 K, for x = 0.0, to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase with T-N = 790 K, for x = 1.0, accompanied by clear signatures of a cluster-glass Selleckchem Quisinostat behavior. For intermediate Fe contents a mixed-phase state occurs, with a gradual decrease (increase) in the FM (AFM) phase, accompanied by a systematic transition broadening for 0.2 < x < 0.7. A model based on the expected exchange interaction among the various magnetic-ion types accounts very well for the saturation magnetization (M-S) dependence on Fe doping. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3054323]“
“AMH is secreted by immature Sertoli cells (SC) and is responsible

for the regression of Mullerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process. AMH is also involved in testicular

development and function. AMHs are at their lowest levels in the first days after birth but increase after the first week, likely reflecting active SC proliferation. AMH rises rapidly AZD2014 in concentration in boys during the first month, reaching a peak level at about 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood, falling to low levels in puberty. Basal and FSH-stimulated levels of AMH, might become a useful predictive marker of the spermatogenic response to gonadotropic treatment in young patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After puberty, AMH is released preferentially by the apical pole of the SC towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, resulting in higher concentrations in the seminal plasma than in the serum. Defects in AMH production and insensitivity MAPK Inhibitor Library concentration to AMH due to receptor defects result in the persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. A measurable value of AMH in a boy with bilateral cryptorchidism is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or ovaries, as would be the case in girls with female pseudohermaphroditism and pure gonadal dysgenesis. Lower serum AMH concentrations in otherwise healthy boys with cryptorchidism, who were compared with their age-matched counterparts with palpable testes, have been reported previously. AMH levels are higher in prepubertal patients with varicocele than in controls.

Cholestatic liver disease caused by congenital cytomegalovirus in

Cholestatic liver disease caused by congenital cytomegalovirus infection should be in mind in term infants who presented with late-onset hemorrhagic disease.”
“Threading dislocations (TDs) in 4H-SiC epilayers have been investigated by means

of micro-photoluminescence (mu-PL) mapping at room temperature. Enhanced nonradiative recombination at TDs was confirmed experimentally, resulting in a reduced local PL emission intensity in the mu-PL intensity map performed at 390 nm (near band-edge emission). The click here behavior of nonradiative recombination at TDs depends on the dislocation type: the screw type of TDs shows stronger effect on the nonradiative recombination activity than the edge type, evidencing a larger local reduction of PL emission intensity. Furthermore, PD173074 chemical structure the contrast of TDs in the mu-PL intensity map greatly depends on the carrier lifetimes of the 4H-SiC epilayers. Lifetimes longer than 0.5 mu s are essential to obtain a discernible contrast for the individual TDs. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622336]“
“Adherence to immune suppressants and follow-up care regimen is important in achieving optimal long-term outcomes after organ transplantation. To identify patients most at risk for non-adherence, this cross-sectional, descriptive study explores the prevalence

and correlates of non-adherence to immune-suppressant therapy among liver recipients. Anonymous questionnaires mailed consisted of the domains: (i) adherence barriers to immune suppressants, Selleck Stem Cell Compound Library (ii) immune suppressants knowledge, (iii) demographics, (iv) social support, (v) medical co-morbidities, and (vi) healthcare locus of control and other beliefs. Overall response was 49% (281/572). Data analyzed for those transplanted within 10 yr of study reveal 50% (119/237) recipients or 9.2/100 person years reporting non-adherence. Non-adherence was reported highest in the 2-5 yr post-transplant

phase (69/123, 56%). The highest immune-suppressant non-adherence rates were in recipients who are: divorced (26/34, 76%, p = 0.0093), have a history of substance or alcohol use (42/69, 61%, p = 0.0354), have mental health needs (50/84, 60%, p = 0.0336), those who missed clinic appointments (25/30, 83%, p < 0.0001), and did not maintain medication logs (71/122, 58%, p = 0.0168). Respondents who were non-adherent with physician appointments were more than four and a half times as likely (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.5-14.7, p = 0.008) to be non-adherent with immune suppressants. In conclusion, half of our respondents report non-adherence to immune suppressants. Factors identified may assist clinicians to gauge patients’ non-adherence risk and target resources.”
“Brazil introduced rotavirus vaccination in March 2006. We studied 133 rotavirus-positive fecal samples collected from February 2005 through December 2007. Genotype G2P[4] was found in 1.

We have also shown that a gene trap loss-of-function mutation in

We have also shown that a gene trap loss-of-function mutation in Metabolism inhibitor C4st-1 leads to severe skeletal abnormalities during

mouse embryogenesis. In addition, we described a highly specific temporal and spatial expression pattern of C4st-1 during mouse embryogenesis. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control C4st-1 gene expression remain unexplored. In order to gain knowledge on the transcriptional regulation of C4ST-1, we used a bioinformatical approach to identify conserved putative long-range cis-regulatory modules in a region of 120 kb spanning the 5′ end of the C4ST-1 gene. Luciferase reporter assays in human HEK293T and mouse NmuMG cells identified a functional C4ST-1 promoter, as well as a number of cis-regulatory modules able to positively and negatively regulate C4ST-1 expression. Moreover, we identified TGF beta-responsive regulatory modules that can function in a cell type-specific fashion. Taken together, our results identify TGF beta-dependent and -independent

cis-regulatory modules of the C4ST-1 gene.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with a low survival rate beyond 5 years from symptom onset. Although the genes that cause most cases of ALS are still unknown, several important genetic discoveries have been made recently that will bring substantial insight into some of the mechanisms involved in ALS. Mutations in two genes with related functions were recently reported in patients with familial ALS: the FUS/TLS gene at the ALS6 locus on chromosome SB525334 order 16 and the TARDBP gene at the ALS10 AZD9291 locus on chromosome 1. In addition, the first wave of genomewide association studies in ALS has been published. While these studies clearly show that there is no definitive and common highly penetrant allele that causes ALS, some interesting candidate genes emerged from these studies. The findings help to

better delineate the types of genes and genetic variants that are involved in ALS and provide substantial material for future research.”
“Background: The primary objective of this prospective randomized controlled trial was to compare functional and quality-of-life indices and rates of revision surgery in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with and without acromioplasty.

Methods: Eighty-six patients consented and were randomly assigned intraoperatively to one of two study groups, and sixty-eight of them completed the study. The primary outcome was the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index. Secondary outcome measures included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder assessment form and a count of revisions required in each group. Outcome measures were completed preoperatively and at three, six, twelve, eighteen, and twenty-four months after surgery.

Results: WORC and ASES scores improved significantly in each group over time (p < 0.001).

RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, 4,910 patients (3,107 UW and 1,803 CS

RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, 4,910 patients (3,107 UW and 1,803 CS) with sufficient preservation solution information for analysis underwent OHT. Baseline characteristics were well-matched between the two groups. UW was associated with a small but significantly improved survival compared with CS at 30 days (96.7% vs 95.4%, p = 0.02)

and 1- year (89.6% vs 87.0%, p < 0.01). These survival differences persisted on multivariate analysis at 30 days (HR 1.47 [1.02 to 2.13], p < 0.05) and 1 year (HR 1.40 [1.14 to 1.73], p < 0.01). In the 1,455 patients with high-risk allografts, preservation with UW was associated with improved survival compared with CS at 30 days (94.3% vs 91.3%, p < 0.01) and at I year BIBW2992 (84.2% vs 80.19%, p < 0.01), a difference that was significant according to multivariate Cox analysis at 30 days (HR 2.29 [1.39 to 3.76], p < 0.01) and 1 year (HR 1.61 [1.17 to 2.21], p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Preservation with UW solution is associated with improved short-term survival compared with CS. Patients undergoing OHT with high-risk allografts have a similar survival benefit. Heart Lung Transplant 2011;30:1033-43 (C) 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Coupling luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) with plasmonic solar cells is a potential method to increase

conversion efficiency while reducing cost associated with large-area photovoltaic and solar-tracking systems. Specifically, the emission spectrum of the fluorescent dye in the LSC can be matched to the absorption spectrum in the p38 MAPK cancer photovoltaic cell which can be tuned by surface plasmon resonance. Here we investigate this concept employing organic solar cells with plasmonic silver nanoparticles and polymethylmethacrylate-based solar concentrators

with Lumogen Red dye. The absorption enhancement is predicted by Mie theory, taking size effect on dielectric properties into selleck chemicals consideration. A factor of two increase of conversion efficiency is obtained when the absorption peak in the solar cell is tuned to match the emission peak of Lumogen Red dye. A similar approach could be employed to enhance the efficiency of other LSC-photovoltaic systems including those based on silicon solar cells with different surface plasmonic nanostructures. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3567928]“
“Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy effects subjective and/or objective complaints and salivary flow rates of patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (PSS).

Study design. Thirty women recently diagnosed with PSS, scheduled for HCQ treatment (400 mg daily), participated and were clinically examined before initiation of 30 weeks of HCQ treatment. During baseline evaluation, both the objective and/or subjective oral findings were recorded.

Most AEs of abnormal peripheral sensation were rated as mild (95%

Most AEs of abnormal peripheral sensation were rated as mild (95%) and the majority (65%) resolved before study completion. At Week 8, overall knee pain and SGA improved from baseline by a mean (+/-standard error) of -12.8 (+/-1.78) and 8.0 (+/-1.66), respectively. Similar improvements occurred for WOMAC subscales.

Conclusions: Repeated injections of tanezumab in patients selleckchem with moderate to severe knee OA provide continued pain relief and improved function with a low incidence of side effects. Additional studies to define the efficacy and

duration of pain reduction and to provide a more complete assessment of long-term safety are warranted. (C) 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate differences on the endometrial immunoexpression of type I IFN receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) during the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep, when oestrus is synchronized with either prostaglandin analogues (group

PG) or conventional progestagens (group P). Plasma progesterone was measured from day 0 to 21 post-coitus (pc) (day 0 = day of oestrus). Immunohistochemistry was performed in samples of uterine horns from pregnant sheep on days 9pc, 13pc, 15pc, 17pc and 21pc to locate IFNAR1 and OTR expression in different endometrial compartments. Mean this website levels of plasma progesterone were different between treatments, obtaining higher levels in the PG group than in the P group (p < 0.05). Comparing days of pregnancy, IFNAR1 protein expression was different in the luminal epithelium (LE) (p < 0.05), while OTR was different in the LE and in the superficial glandular epithelium (SG) (p < 0.05). Temporal variation on the expression of both proteins from day 9pc to 21pc has been evidenced. IFNAR1 and OTR expression did not show significant differences between treatments. However, LSD1 inhibitor the response observed in the endometrium was highly inconsistent

when prostaglandin analogues were used. Therefore, the protocol based on prostaglandin analogues still needs to be optimized before being considered as a better alternative to progestagens for oestrous synchronization in sheep.”
“In the present work, lignin isolation and physicochemical features from oil palm fronds (OPF) black liquor using Kraft, soda and organosolv pulping have been studied. The characterization of lignin samples by means of FTIR, H-1 and C-13 NMR has shown that different types of hydroxyl functional groups were obtained from different delignification processes. It was revealed that the lignin samples contained substantial amounts of non-condensed guaiacyl and syringyl unit with fewer p-hydroxyphenyl units. The GSH molar ratio of Kraft, soda and organosolv lignin was assigned to 26:51:21,21:49:30 and 23:67:10, respectively, upon quantification.

01), whereas the BA of the control animals remained statistically

01), whereas the BA of the control animals remained statistically unchanged (n = 12, p > 0.05). During systemic administration of NE, mean arterial pressure increased from 70.0 +/- 1.9 mmHg to 136.0 +/- 2.1 mmHg in the SAH group (n = 12, p < 0.001) and from 72.0 +/- 3.1 to 137.8 +/- 1.3 in the control group (n = 12, p < 0.001). On day 5 after SAH, a significant dilatation of the BA in response to norepinephrine could be demonstrated in both groups. The diameter of the BA in the SAH group increased from 640.5 +/- 17.5 A mu m to 722.5 A +/- 23.7 A mu m (n = 12, p < 0.05; ). In the control group

the diameter increased from 716.8 A +/- 15.5 A mu m to 779.9 A +/- 24.1 A mu m (n = 12, p < 0.05).

This study demonstrated that NE-induced hypertension causes angiographic dilatation of the BA in the SAH rabbit model. Based on these observations, it can be hypothesised that clinical improvement during vasopressor-induced selleck chemical hypertension therapy Selleck Fosbretabulin after SAH might be explained with cerebral vasodilatation mechanisms that lead to improvement of cerebral blood flow.”
“Background: Computer simulation is an important method for the basic researches of cardiac electrophysiology to prove the mechanisms and hypotheses of cardiac arrhythmias by reproducing body surface electrocardiograms. In this research, we extend the researches of heart models to the computer simulation

of clinical electrophysiological study (EPS) as a clinical application of heart models. Method: Through setting the standard EPS pacing protocols, including extrastimuli and incremental pacing in the heart models, we simulated the corresponding excitation propagations in the heart and the intracardiac PF-00299804 electrograms that would be measured with catheter electrodes. Results: Examples of complicated cases observed during EPS are reproduced in this research, including the induction of a Wenckebach pattern,

the induction and termination of supraventricular tachycardia due to the reentry loop of antidromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia for the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome (Type A), and the localization of an accessory pathway for the WPW syndrome (Type A). Conclusion: This study demonstrates an application of whole-heart modeling and computer simulation to clinical EPS. (PACE 2012; 35:718729)”
“This report describes a case of a neonate presenting with many of the typical phenotypic characteristics of chromosome 3p deletion including hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, flat philtrum, thin lips and low-set ears. The hands and feet showed post axial polydactyly, single palmar creases and rocker bottom feet. A karyotype confirmed chromosome 3p25.3-pter deletion with normal parental karyotypes. A high TSH was noted on newborn screening and congenital hypothyroidism was confirmed on thyroid function tests. Thyroid nuclear imaging was suggestive of dyshormonogenesis.

The leaching studies carried out after treatment with 20% formic

The leaching studies carried out after treatment with 20% formic acid at room temperature showed a remarkable increase in dissolution efficiencies to 97% Pt, 94% Pd and 90% Rh.

ConclusionsA process for the leaching of PGMs using electro-generated chlorine showed almost total dissolution of PGMs in hydrochloric acid solution after pretreatment of the spent automotive catalyst with formic acid. The proposed leaching system is eco-friendly and has high leaching ability for PGMs from spent materials.

(c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective. The primary aim of this study was to compare the incidence of catheter- associated bacteriuria with a noble metal alloy-coated latex catheter or a non-coated silicone catheter in patients undergoing find more elective orthopaedic surgery with shortterm catheterization. Secondary objectives included identifying risk factors for bacteriuria and catheter-associated urinary tract symptoms. Material and methods. The study compared 217 patients randomized to and receiving a silicone catheter with 222 patients treated with a coated latex catheter. Before removal of the catheter a sample for urinary culture was obtained. Bacteriuria was defined as the growth of >= 100 000 cfu/ml. A logistic regression model was used to identify risk groups for bacteriuria. Patients were interviewed about urinary tract symptoms Autophagy Compound Library cell line during and after catheterization. Results. The incidence of bacteriuria was 1.5% with

the coated latex catheter and 5.5% selleck chemicals llc with the silicone catheter (p = 0.027) after a mean period of 2 days’ catheterization time. Female gender (odds ratio 6.02) and obesity (odds ratio 5.08) were significant risk factors for bacteriuria. A quarter of the patients reported at least one symptom from the urinary tract during and after catheterization. Most patients defined the symptoms as “”yes, a little”" and a few consulted a healthcare professional because of the symptoms. Conclusion. This study confirmed previous results that the noble metal alloy coating significantly reduces the risk of catheterassociated bacteriuria in short-term catheterization

(1-3 days). Female gender and obesity were significant risk factors for developing bacteriuria, while the use of an open drainage system and insertion of the catheter on the ward were not.”
“Study Design. Retrospective review of a series of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

Objective. To perform a 3-dimensional (3D) analysis of patients with thoracic scoliosis to identify differences in the thoracic sagittal alignment measured from the standard lateral projection as compared to the “”true lateral”" view.

Summary of Background Data. It has been difficult to clinically obtain radiographs in the planes of maximum spinal deformity. Recently, 3D models of the spine have been developed using biplanar radiographic reconstructions that allow a more accurate assessment of spinal alignment.

Methods.