Figure 8 (8 hours) shows that significant cell lysis, as indicated by release of the cytoplasmic enzyme β-galactosidase, occurs when YS873 is grown in the presence of 5% CO2 at pH 6.6 or 7.6, and in YS873 zwf grown in the presence of 5% CO2 in LB pH 7.5. YS873 zwf exhibited significantly less lysis in the presence of 5% CO2 in LB broth pH 6.6, showing that a loss-of-function mutation in zwf significantly suppresses sensitivity to CO2 at neutral (as shown in Figure 6) or slightly acidic pH (Figure
8B). Again, we found that significant cell lysis can occur with a relatively constant CFU/ml (Figure 8B: YS873 zwf in LB pH 7.6). Discussion msbB Salmonella pleiotropy The msbB gene was mutated to reduce the toxicity of Salmonella in mice and humans [5, 6]. In order for these strains to function within mammalian systems they must be able to persist under normal mammalian physiological conditions.
In contrast to other reports [17–20], we found PF-6463922 ic50 msbB Salmonella to have striking Fludarabine growth defects, demonstrating sensitivity to salt, EGTA, MacConkey media, and polymyxin B sulfate [4, 9, 16]. Here we report additional sensitivity to osmolarity, gluconate, acidic pH and 5% CO2 growth conditions. Significantly, msbB Salmonella are sensitive to the conditions found within mammals, where blood has significant levels of salt and CO2; we therefore we screened for a suppressor of msbB-associated CO2 sensitivity. zwf supresses CO2 sensitivity in msbB Salmonella Glucose-6-phosphate-dehdrogenase (encoded by zwf) catalyzes the first enzymatic step in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which converts glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADPH + H. In E. coli, zwf is regulated by several mechanisms including anaerobic growth , growth rate , weak acids as well as superoxide . Weak acids appear to regulate zwf through the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) regulon, whereas superoxide exposure induces zwf through the Sox R/S regulon and contributes to DNA repair . zwf mutants of Pseudomonas
are hypersensitive to superoxide generating agents such as methyl viologen . Salmonella Typhimurium zwf might be regulated by a different set of environmental signals than E. coli. Superoxide, while clearly activating other SoxR/S regulated Liothyronine Sodium genes like sodA and fumC, does not induce zwf Selleck Adriamycin transcription . S. Typhimurium zwf mutants have been shown to be less virulent in mice and more sensitive to reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates . In general, it is thought that the expression of zwf and subsequent generation of NADPH helps cells to combat oxidative stress. Interestingly, SoxS mutants of Salmonella are not attenuated in mice , suggesting that even though zwf expression is important for survival, superoxide generated responses might not be required. In the case of msbB mutants, the zwf mutation restores wild type growth under 5% CO2 and pH 6.