Transformation of the rapidly proliferating quantities of experim

Transformation of the rapidly proliferating quantities of experimental information into a usable form in order to facilitate their analysis is a challenging task. On this track, bioinformatics, an essential part of proteomics research, aspires to amend inquiries into a better manipulated, a better handled and a better understood form so as to enhance existing knowledge expansion.”

Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) affects neuronal function and cerebral blood flow. However, its association with outcome in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest (CA) has not been evaluated.

Methods and results: Observational cohort study using data from the Australian New Zealand (ANZ) Intensive Care Society Adult-Patient-Database (ANZICS-APD). Outcomes analyses were adjusted for illness severity, co-morbidities, hypothermia, treatment check details limitations, age, year of admission, glucose, source of admission, PaO2 and propensity score.

We studied 16,542 consecutive patients admitted to 125 ANZ ICUs after CA between 2000 and 2011. Using the APD-PaCO2 (obtained within 24 h of ICU

admission), 3010 (18.2%) were classified into the hypo( PaCO2 < 35 mmHg), 6705 (40.5%) into the normo-(35-45 mmHg) and 6827 (41.3%) into the hypercapnia (>45 mmHg) group. The hypocapnia group, compared with the normocapnia group, had a trend toward higher in-hospital mortality (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.04]), lower rate of discharge home (OR 0.81 [0.70-0.94, p < 0.01]) and higher likelihood of fulfilling selleck products composite adverse outcome of death and no discharge JIB-04 cost home (OR 1.23 [1.10-1.37, p < 0.001]). In contrast, the hypercapnia group had similar in-hospital mortality (OR 1.06 [0.97-1.15, p = 0.19]) but higher rate of discharge home among survivors (OR 1.16 [1.03-1.32, p = 0.01]) and similar likelihood of fulfilling the composite outcome (OR 0.97 [0.89-1.06, p = 0.52]). Cox-proportional hazards modelling supported these findings.

Conclusions: Hypo-and hypercapnia are

common after ICU admission post-CA. Compared with normocapnia, hypocapnia was independently associated with worse clinical outcomes and hypercapnia a greater likelihood of discharge home among survivors. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ventilator associated pneumonia is a common and costly complication in critically ill and injured surgical patients. The diagnosis of pneumonia remains problematic and non-specific. Using clinical criteria, a diagnosis of pneumonia is typically not made until an infection is well established. Semi-quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirate and broncho-alveolar lavage are employed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis but are invasive and require time for culture results to become available. We report data that show that an inexpensive, rapid and non-invasive alternative may exist. In particular we show that: 1).

Device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) and small-bowel capsule endosco

Device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) and small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) have recently changed our endoscopic approach to small-bowel imaging. Furthermore, new advanced endoscopic imaging techniques have been implemented into clinical practice to improve both characterization selleck products of mucosa( inflammation and detection of dysplastic lesions.

Aim: To provide readers with a review about the concept of advanced endoscopic imaging for the diagnosis and characterization of CD.

Methods: A literature search on the use of advanced endoscopy techniques in IBD patients was performed.

Results: DAE and SBCE allow for deep enteroscopy with high diagnostic yields and low complication’s

rate but their collocation in the diagnostic algorithm is still not clearly defined. Dye-based Pevonedistat cost chromoendoscopy (DBC) and magnification chromoendoscopy improved dysplasia’s detection in long standing colitis and prediction of inflammatory activity and extent. Dye-less chromoendoscopy (DLC) might offer

the potential to replace conventional DBC for surveillance. However, both narrow band imaging and i-scan have already shown to significantly improve activity and extent assessment in comparison to white-light endoscopy. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) can detect more dysplastic lesions in surveillance colonoscopy and predict neoplastic and inflammatory changes with high accuracy compared to histology. Moreover, CLE-based molecular imaging may anticipate the therapeutic responses to biological therapy. Endocytoscopy can identify in vivo inflammatory mucosal cells harboring a new method to assess the mucosal activity.

Conclusions: Recent progresses in small-bowel enteroscopy offer several potential benefits to improve both diagnosis and characterization of CD. New advanced endoscopic imaging

techniques can improve detection of dysplasia and refine mucosal healing assessment, even Looking beyond the morphological parameters revealed by conventional endoscopic imaging. (C) 2013 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Study Objectives: To examine the prevalence and clinical significance of sleep-disordered selleck chemical breathing in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD).

Methods and Results: Overnight sleep studies were performed in 129 ICD recipients who had no history of sleep apnea. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 29 +/- 11%. Mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea was diagnosed in the presence of an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 5-15/h, 15.1-30/h, and >30/h, respectively. No sleep apnea was present in 49 patients (38%), 57 (44%) had central sleep apnea (CSA) and 23 patients (18%) had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

In conclusion almost half of the young healthy males participatin

In conclusion almost half of the young healthy males participating in the study were detected to have vitamin D deficiency in winter. Low vitamin D concentrations are associated with a worse emotional state.”
“During the past few decades, much effort has been devoted to increasing

the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass to create biofuels, biochemicals, biocomposites, and a host of other bioproducts to replace fossil-based GSK1210151A supplier products. Recently, the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass received much more attention in ionic liquids with strong hydrogen-bond-destroying ability to produce lignocellulosic derivatives containing new functionality. In present study, carboxyl groups were attached onto sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by the homogenous modification

of SCB with maleic anhydride in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) without any catalysts. The parameters optimized included maleic anhydride concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time required in the process. The extent of maleation of SCB was measured by the weight percent gain (WPG), which increased with an increment of maleic anhydride concentration between 1:1 and 5:1 (g/g, maleic anhydride/SCB). It should be noted that WPG decreased at wild conditions, including long reaction duration (>60 min) and high temperature this website (>110 degrees C). The results from FT-IR and solid-state CP/MAS C-13 NMR spectroscopies indicated that the maleation of hydroxyl groups in lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses LY2835219 all occurred. XRD, SEM and TGA/DTG analyses of the native and modified SCB showed that the cellulose crystalline structure of SCB was significantly destroyed after dissolution, maleation, and regeneration in IL. However, the remained cellulose

crystalline structure did not change except remarkable decrystallization. The thermal stability of the maleated SCB decreased at low temperature (lower than 300 degrees C), and increased at high temperature (above 300 degrees C) compared with that of native ball-milled SCB. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Probiotics and prebiotics, which can change the colonic microenvironment, are the areas of current interest. Unutilizable fractions of the foods and fortificants, which reach the colon can affect the profile of probiotics. Effects of eight such factors viz, zinc sulphate, zinc carbonate, ferrous sulphate, ferric citrate, quercetin, gallic acid, phytic acid, and oxalic acid were, therefore, investigated on 24 H growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L1) and Lactobacillus plantarum (L2), two isolates of bifidobacteria (Ion gum (L3) and bifidum (L4)) and a marketed consortium (L5) of eight probiotic cultures. MRS medium with marketed fructooligosaccharide as the only source of carbon was used for study of dose response curves. Quercetin and zinc sulphate showed significant positive effect for L1 and L5 (P < 0.

8), 61% women, 72% white, and 22% black

Barriers to pain

8), 61% women, 72% white, and 22% black.

Barriers to pain self-management included: 1) lack of support from friends and family; 2) limited resources (e.g., transportation, financial); 3) depression; 4) ineffectiveness of pain-relief strategies; 5) time constraints and other life priorities; 6) avoiding activity because of fear of pain exacerbation; 7) lack of tailoring strategies to meet personal needs; 8) not being able to maintain the use of strategies after study completion; 9) physical limitations; and 10) difficult patient-physician interactions. Facilitators to improve pain self-management included 1) encouragement from nurse care managers; 2) improving depression with treatment; 3) supportive family and friends; and 4) providing a menu of different self-management strategies to use.


Future research is needed to confirm

these SN-38 CFTRinh-172 price findings and to design interventions that capitalize on the facilitators identified while at the same time addressing the barriers to pain self-management.”
“In the emergent setting, patients presenting with acute interscapular pain along with haemodynamic instability require immediate evaluation. We describe the case of a patient in which computed tomographic scanning demonstrated a large hyper-dense, periaortic collection on post-contrast imaging. Urgent endovascular repair was performed for descending thoracic aortic rupture. Her postoperative course, however, was atypical with a readmission 1 week after discharge

with symptoms similar to her primary presentation. Alternative pathologies were then considered in a more elective setting in which the correct diagnosis of diffuse malignant mesothelioma was ultimately discovered in a patient with no previous exposure to occupational toxins. The tumour burden was advanced and the patient opted for palliative care. Herein, we suggest a consideration for oncological thoracic pathology in patients presenting with signs and symptoms mimicking acute thoracic aortic rupture or dissection, who may IPI-145 cell line demonstrate atypical symptoms.”
“The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central for protein synthesis and is the largest intracellular Ca2+ store in neurons. The neuronal ER is classically described to have a continuous lumen spanning all cellular compartments. This allows neuronal ER to integrate spatially separate events in the cell. Recent in vitro as well as in vivo findings, however, demonstrate that the neuronal ER is a structurally dynamic entity, capable of rapid fragmentation, i.e., ER fission. The ER fragments can fuse back together and reinstate ER continuity. This reversible phenomenon can be induced repeatedly within the same cell, is temperature-dependent, and compatible with cell survival. The key trigger for dendritic ER fission is N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation in the presence of extracellular Ca2+.

Method: Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled

Method: Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic AC220 manufacturer clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. Results: A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported

substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or PND-1186 recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino

(odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. Conclusion: In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues.”
“Two isomeric ferrocenyl chalcones having an abietane fragment were synthesized.”
“Purpose of review

Transurethral resection of the prostate has long been held as the gold standard for treatment of benign

prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); however, there have been significant innovations in other less invasive alternative Small molecule library research buy treatments for BPH in recent years. Our purpose is to present emerging surgical treatment modalities which have been presented in the last 12 months.

Recent findings

We report recent results in different treatment options for BPH. The concept of stenting the urethra has already been introduced nearly 20 years ago in urology and like intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin it has found application in urological treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. The prostatic urethral lift procedure is a novel surgical minimal invasive approach needing long-term results. Intraprostatic injections with NX-1207 and histotripsy fractionation of prostate tissue are treatment modalities, which are currently under evaluation for a clinical application in humans.


Anaesthesia-free outpatient capability, lack of sexual side-effects and avoidance of actual surgery are attractive to patient and clinician alike. Some of the presented treatments may establish in clinical practice as a suitable treatment alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate and medical therapy.”
“Background: Osteoporosis is a widespread but largely preventable disease.

The type of primary studies included (prognostic factor or outcom

The type of primary studies included (prognostic factor or outcome prediction) was unclear in two-thirds of the reviews. A minority of the reviews

reported univariable or multivariable point estimates and measures of dispersion from the primary studies. Moreover, the variables considered for outcome prediction model development were often not reported, or were unclear. In most reviews there was no information about model performance. Quantitative analysis was performed in 10 reviews, and 49 reviews assessed the primary studies qualitatively. In both analyses types a range of different methods was used to present GNS-1480 the results of the outcome prediction studies.

Conclusions: Different methods are applied to synthesize primary study results but quantitative analysis is rarely performed. The description of its objectives and of the primary studies is suboptimal

and performance parameters of the outcome prediction models are rarely mentioned. The poor reporting and the wide variety of data synthesis strategies are prone to influence the conclusions of outcome prediction reviews. Therefore, there is much room for improvement in reviews of outcome prediction studies.”
“Background: Telephone surveys based on samples of landline telephone numbers are widely used to measure the prevalence of health risk behaviours such as smoking, drug use and alcohol consumption. An increasing number of households

are relying solely on mobile telephones, creating a potential bias for population estimates derived from landline-based sampling frames which do not incorporate mobile phone numbers. Studies in the US have identified significant differences between landline and mobile telephone users in smoking and alcohol consumption, but there has been little work in other settings or focussed on illicit drugs.

Methods: This study examined Australian prevalence estimates of cannabis use, tobacco smoking Barasertib molecular weight and risky alcohol consumption based on samples selected using a dual-frame (mobile and landline) approach. Respondents from the landline sample were compared both to the overall mobile sample (including respondents who had access to a landline) and specifically to respondents who lived in mobile-only households. Bivariate comparisons were complemented with multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for the effects of basic demographic variables.

Results: The landline sample reported much lower prevalence of tobacco use, cannabis use and alcohol consumption than the mobile samples. Once demographic variables were adjusted for, there were no significant differences between the landline and mobile respondents on any of the alcohol measures examined. In contrast, the mobile samples had significantly higher rates of cannabis and tobacco use, even after adjustment.

“The chemical composition of the steam volatile oil of the

“The chemical composition of the steam volatile oil of the whole aerial part of Scutellaria grossa Wall ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), obtained by steam distillation, has been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oil was found to be rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (88.6%). A total of 50 constituents were identified, representing 94.4% of the total oil composition. Linalool (37.0%) and 1-octen-3-ol (32.0%) were found to be the principal constituents. The antibacterial

activity of the Alvespimycin cell line oil was determined against 10 bacterial strains by measuring the growth inhibitory zones. The oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis, and the Gram-negative, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica enterica. A minimum inhibitory

concentration of 31.25 mu L mL(-1) was observed against E. faecalis.”
“In this retrospective study, a review of the features of 21 recent cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is presented and compared with current published reports to improve the preoperative diagnosis. The clinical, laboratory, STI571 and radiological features, preoperative diagnoses, and operative methods of 21 patients with XGP were retrospectively reviewed. Mean age of the patients was 52.1 years; the female:male ratio was 2.5:1. All patients were symptomatic, and most common symptoms were flank pain and fever greater than 38A degrees C. The laboratory results showed anemia in 71.4 % of cases, leukocytosis in 61.9 %, and pyuria in 81.0 %. In radiologic examinations, renal or ureter stone in 9 patients, hydronephrosis in 12 patients, a renal mass in 2 patients, and kidney enlargement in 9 patients were observed. For the patient who was suspected as having XGP before surgery, partial nephrectomy was performed; for 2 patients who were suspected as renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy was performed; and for the remaining 18 patients, simple nephrectomy was performed. Among patients complaining of flank pain

and fever, if the patients have a urinary tract infection and show the signs of anemia or leukocytosis and have staghorn calculi or a urinary tract obstruction AG-014699 purchase and renal mass by radioactive examination, it is believed that the possibility of XGP should be considered.”
“Essential oil (EO) compositions of flowers and fruits of Hypericum perforatum L. and Hypericum scabrum L. growing wild in Kashan, central Iran, were determined by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction method and analysed using GC-MS technique. Analysis revealed 28 identified compounds for H. perforatum, with two main components being alpha-pinene (25.36%) and alpha-amorphene (12.12%). Thirty-five compounds were identified in H. scabrum L. representing 98.60% of the oil with alpha-pinene (70.21%) and p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol (2.89%) as main components.

Next, in the transient blood flow, a sudden increase in the blood

Next, in the transient blood flow, a sudden increase in the blood flow-rate induces the transient behaviors of the blood flow in the bridge channel. Here, the elasticity (or characteristic time) of blood can be quantitatively measured by analyzing the dynamic movement of FK866 blood in the bridge channel. The regression formula (A(Blood) (t) = A(alpha) + A(beta) exp [-(t - t(0))/lambda(Blood)]) is selected

based on the pressure difference (Delta P = P-A – P-B) at each junction (A, B) of both side channels. The characteristic time of blood (lambda(Blood)) is measured by analyzing the area (A(Blood)) filled with blood in the bridge channel by selecting an appropriate detection window in the microscopic images captured by a high-speed camera (frame rate = 200 Hz, total measurement time = 7 s). The elasticity of blood (G(Blood))

is identified using the relationship between the characteristic time Acalabrutinib chemical structure and the viscosity of blood. For practical demonstrations, the proposed method is successfully applied to evaluate the variations in viscosity and elasticity of various blood samples: (a) various hematocrits form 20% to 50%, (b) thermal-induced treatment (50 degrees C for 30 min), (c) flow-induced shear stress (53 +/- 0.5 mL/h for 120 min), and (d) normal rat versus spontaneously hypertensive rat. Based on these experimental demonstrations, the proposed method can be effectively used to monitor variations in viscosity and elasticity of bloods, even with the absence of fully integrated sensors, tedious labeling and calibrations. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing Ispinesib cell line LLC.”
“We have investigated magnetic properties of the heavy fermion system Ce1-xGdxCoSi3 (0 <= x <= 1) via specific heat and electrical resistivity measurements. The specific heat shows antiferromagnetism at 9 K for GdCoSi3 (x = 1.0). With increasing Ce concentration, T-N linearly decreases and is suppressed at x = 0.1. An anomalous hump in specific heat was found below the ordering temperature for x >= 0.4. For x = 0.1, non-Fermi-liquid behavior was found in electrical

resistivity and -ln T divergence in C/T below 3 K. Our results indicate that x = 0.1 is a quantum critical point. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3076604]“
“Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump.

Results: Oral administration of the extract caused a significant

Results: Oral administration of the extract caused a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in the number selleck screening library of abdominal writhes (control, 84.67 +/- 9.58; 100 mg/kg, 57.86 +/- 3.07; 200 mg/kg, 24.40 +/- 3.92; and 400 mg/kg, 22.50 +/- 2.53). The extract also produced significant (p < 0.05) but non-dose dependent increase in elevation of pain threshold in the hot plate (ranging from 27.99 to 42.26 % inhibition) and tail flick tests (ranging from 34.73 to 81.42 % inhibition) in mice and rats, respectively. All doses of the extract used produced significant (p < 0.05)

inhibition of both phases of the formalin-induced pain in mice, with a more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect on the late (ranging from 46.96 to 74.12 %) phase than the early anti-neurogenic (ranging from 49.52 to 51.47 %) phase.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the analgesic effect of Alstonia boonei may be mediated via both central and peripheral mechanisms.”
“The ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Euryale ferox seed shells was modeled using response surface methodology. A three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize three extraction variables, including extraction time

(X-1), ethanol concentration (X-2), and ratio of aqueous ethanol to raw material (X-3), for the achievement of high extraction yield of the BEZ235 in vivo phenolic compounds. The statistical analyses show that the independent variables (X-1, X-2), the quadratic terms (X-1(2), X-2(2) and X-3(2)), and the interactions VX-809 concentration of X-1 with X-2 and X-3 have significant effect on the yield (p<0.01). The optimized conditions are X-1 of 21 min, X-2 of 52%, and X-3 of 31 mL/g.

Under these conditions, the experimental yield is 15.69 +/- 0.082% (n=3), which is well matched with the predicted yield of 15.70%. The evaluation of antioxidant activity by DPPH assay indicates that the phenolic compounds from E. ferox seed shells possess significant antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis reveals that pyrogallol, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and rutin are the major composition in the extracts. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aim of the study: The authors present a prospective histomorphological study of middle ear ossicles, harvested from cholesteatomous ears, to evaluate for presence of residual cholesteatoma after mechanical treatment and short-time autoclaving.

Sixty ossicles were used as specimens in this study. The ossicles were grouped as follows: Group A – ossicles stripped and burred using a fine diamond burr under microscopic control. Group B – ossicles autoclaved for 4 min at 134A degrees C after mechanical burring under microscopic control.

In group A, 30 ossicles were histologicaly examined after mechanical treatment. The residual disease was found in one badly eroded ossicle.

The reduction of PUL activity had no pleiotropic effects on the o

The reduction of PUL activity had no pleiotropic effects on the other enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis. selleck The short chains (DP <= 13) of amylopectin in PUL mutants were increased compared with that of

the wild type, but the extent of the changes was much smaller than that of sug1 mutants. The alpha-glucan composition [amylose, amylopectin, water-soluble polysaccharide (WSP)] and the structure of the starch components (amylose and amylopectin) of the PUL mutants were essentially the same, although the average chain length of the B(2-3) chains of amylopectin in the PUL mutant was similar to 3 residues longer than that of the wild type. The double mutants between the PUL-null and mild sug1 mutants still retained starch in the outer layer of endosperm tissue, while the amounts of WSP and short chains (DP <= 7) of amylopectin were higher than those of the sug1 mutant; this indicates that the PUL function partially overlaps with that of ISA1 and its deficiency has a much smaller effect on the synthesis of amylopectin than ISA1 deficiency and the variation of the sug1 phenotype is not significantly dependent on the PUL activities.”
“This study assessed substance abuse treatment providers’ beliefs about empirically supported treatments (ESTs) to determine if providing information about empirical support for interventions would change

beliefs. Treatment providers (N=136) completed an interview regarding five interventions with varied empirical HTS assay support: contingency management (CM), motivational interviewing (MI), relapse

prevention (RP), 12-step approaches (TSA), and verbal confrontation (VC). Participants then read primers describing empirical support for each intervention prior to completing a repeat interview. Overall, providers reported positive beliefs about ESTs. Baseline beliefs about empirical support for each intervention were inflated relative to that of expert raters except for CM. After reading the primers, beliefs about efficacy changed ACY-738 purchase in the direction of the experts for all interventions except MI, but continued to be inflated except for CM. Willingness to utilize interventions increased for RP, MI, and CM and decreased for TSA and VC, but remained higher than warranted by empirical support. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd”
“In this research, we attempt to improve the impact strength and the viscosity of PA (polyamide) by blending two elastomers, TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane) and POE-g-MA (maleic anhydride-grafted polyethylene-octene elastomer), in PA matrix with twin screw extruder. The ratio of blending is 80PA/20TPU and 80PA/20TPU/20POE-g-MA (66.66PA/16.67TPU/16.67POE-g-MA). Results indicate that POE-g-MA improves the low viscosity of PA and TPU during the blending process, and also their compatibility.